The origin of the name comes from Arabic and is derived from "guhlu" (powdered galena for coloring the eyelids and eyelashes). The Arabs called this "kuhul" and it meant the "most beautiful and finest". The term was then also used for liquids that were considered to be the essence or “spirit” of a substance. The Arabs are also invented the distillation attributed to alcohol (for medical purposes). From this derives "Al-kuhul-vini", the finest of wine (wine spirit). The naturalist and doctor Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus (1493-1541) was the first to use the term “spiritus vini” (wine spirit) for the result of a distillation, and finally the terms wine spirit and alcohol got identical meaning. “Alcool” was first mentioned in writing in Germany in 1597.
Alcohols are chemical compounds in which one or more hydroxyl groups (hydrogen and oxygen) are bonded directly to the carbon. If the molecule contains only one hydroxy group, one speaks of monohydric or lower alcohols, if it contains more, then of polyhydric or higher alcohols. Alcohols are among the Organic acids with a very low acidity. Monohydric alcohols are particularly common in wine:
Low-quality alcohols are volatile liquids with a typical odor, medium-quality alcohols are soapy and oily and higher-quality alcohols are solid, waxy, almost odorless and sweet, From trivalent one speaks of sugar alcohols (alditols). The most important common characteristic of alcohols is hydrophilicity (water-loving = easy to mix). That plays a significant role in wine ethanol, which is often referred to simply as alcohol. It becomes alcoholic fermentation from the sugar splitting off carbon dioxide educated. As a rule of thumb, 10 g of sugar per 1,000 g grape 0.66% vol ethanol. In normally small, harmless quantities come in Wine and in a little larger amount spirits toxic by-products of fermentation fusel oil or fusel alcohols (accompanying alcohols) such as methanol in front.
The individual types of alcohol have different boiling points, e.g. 65 ° C for methanol, 78 ° C for ethanol and 118 ° C for butanol. The opposite water the significantly lower boiling point of ethanol makes it possible distillation of the wine (evaporation of the alcohol long before the boiling point of water is reached) and thus the production of high-proof spirits, Likewise, due to a different boiling point, the absolutely necessary separation of the toxic in large quantities methanol possible from ethanol.
On balancedalcohol content is an important aspect of wine winemaking, Alcohol has a big impact taste and Aroma, Alcoholic beverages are relatively high nutritional value (Fats, carbohydrates). For the other wine ingredients see under total extract, The calculation of the alcohol level is below Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK) explained. A common question is which amount of alcohol is acceptable to health or presumably not harmful to health with regular consumption (see under health ).
See also for the topic under the keywords alcohol content. alcoholism. alcohol ban. allergy. diabetics wine. Male cat. prohibition. intoxication. Satyricon. drinking culture and Vinotherapie,