The red grape variety is a new breed between Petit Bouschet x Alicante ( Garnacha Tinta ). Synonyms are Kambuša ( Bosnia Herzegovina ); Alicante Feminello, Tintoria ( Italy ); Dalmatinka ( Croatia ); Sumo Tinto ( Portugal ); Alicante, Alicante Bouchet, Alicante Bouschet, Alicante Bouschet No. 2, Alicante Femminello, Alicante Nero, Alicante Tinto, Alicantina, Garnacha Tintorera, Tinta Fina, Tintorera, Tintorera de Liria, Tintorera de Longares, Tinto Velasco ( Spain ); Alikant Bushe, Alikant Henri Bushe ( Ukraine ). Despite apparently suggesting synonyms or morphological No similarities with the varieties Garnacha Tinta (Alicante), Grand Noir (Grand Bouschet) or Tinto Velasco be confused. It was a crossing partner of the new varieties Alicante Ganzin. complexa. Golubok. Incrocio Bruni 60. Mulata. Neronet. Odessky Cherny and Terras 20,
The story of how it came about was lengthy. The French breeder Henri Bouschet the varieties started in 1855 in Mauguio (Hérault) Petit Bouschet (Creation of his father Louis Bouschet) and Alicante ( Garnacha Tinta ) to cross. This year the two varieties Alicante Henri Bouschet and Alicante Bouschet No. 1. Ten years later he repeated the crossings and created the Alicante Bouschet No. 2, 5, 6, 7, 12 and 13. All of these were morphologically very similar, but produced different wines. Ultimately, Alicante Henri Bouschet (from 1855) and Alicante Bouschet No. 2 (from 1865) are left that are indistinguishable from the outside and were often planted in mixed vineyards. In practice, no distinction is made and the variety (s) are usually simply referred to as Alicante Bouschet.
The early ripening, productive variety is resistant to real ones mildew but prone to downy mildew, Flavescence doree and Black spots disease, as well as sensitive to drought, Due to the early expulsion is late in spring frosts bud formation endangered. Due to the red colored flesh, which is rather rare in grape varieties, and the strongly coloring berry skin, it produces dark and extremely colorful red wines (but there is also one mutation with colorless flesh). Therefore it is mostly blended as teinturier (Dye grape) used and was formerly used in France in the vineyards in the so-called composite rate together with the weak color variety Aramon Noir grown.
In France was the variety after the phylloxera very popular. The acreage was just under 16,000 hectares at the end of the 1980s, but had shrunk to 4,322 hectares by 2010. The variety is mainly used in Languedoc in the department Hérault (around 50%), the rest in the Jura and in the valley of the Rhone grown. It is also used for the production of grape juice. In Spain a total of 19,551 hectares were planted under Garnacha Tintorera in 2010. More than half of it is in the region La Mancha, the rest especially in the regions Galicia (over 6,000 ha) and Valencia, There were further stocks in Europe in Greece (56 ha), Italy (645 ha), Romania (20 ha), Portugal (3,322 ha), Turkey (488 ha), Hungary (21 ha) and Cyprus (80 ha).
In the United States was she during the prohibition (1920-1933) extraordinarily popular for wine production, because the thick-skinned berries were ideal for long journeys. Many companies and hobby cellar masters sourced grapes and made wine. In California it was widespread until the 1940s; today, around 400 hectares (Central Valley) are still planted. Other countries are overseas Algeria (3,020 ha), Argentina (166 ha), Brazil (129 ha), Chile (4,228 ha), Morocco (1,098 ha), South Africa (10 ha), Tunisia (842 ha) and Uruguay (22 ha). The variety occupied a total of 38,371 hectares of vineyards in 2010 with an upward trend (in 1990 it was around half). It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 23.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)