Hypersensitivity and reactions to foreign substances (allergens). The consumption of tyramine- and histamine-rich foods may be the cause of a headache (Migraine). Caution is advised with genuine sulfite allergy sufferers. With them, even minimal sulfur levels can trigger "sulfite asthma". These people should avoid wine and other sulfuric alcoholic beverages. Symptoms may be similar to asthma and include itching, hives, runny nose, and low blood pressure. In the small group of patients of the "sulfite allergic" one assumes about 10% of asthmatics.
Also in the wine allergenic substances can be contained. Above all, these are protein compounds (when using related substances in the beautiful ) histamine. sorbitol and tyramine (especially with red wines with malolactic fermentation ), against sulfur (is included in almost every wine) and also the alcohol (Ethanol) itself. In this regard, however, there are different limits per substance in the mg / l range. A list of all substances with maximum limits is under ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake).
Since the year 2014 is according to EU Regulation the declaration of 14 allergenic ingredients in food, even with open goods mandatory. Allergenic substances are all considered glutinous Cereals (wheat, rye, barley), milk, eggs, celery, mustard, sulfites, Peanuts, nuts (almonds, nuts, pistachios, etc.), sesame, soybeans, lupines, molluscs, fish and crustaceans, and products thereof. There was already a corresponding regulation. What is new is that the allergenic substances in the list of ingredients must be accompanied by the text "contains ..." supplemented by the corresponding allergen (s). However, there was no change for the wine as a corresponding regulation was valid since the year 2012.
When using or exceeding the limit value of 0.25 mg / l of protein-containing fining agent, this must be stated on the label in the form egg, egg protein, egg product, lysozyme from egg or albumin egg, milk, dairy product, casein made from milk or milk protein preceded by "contains ...". For the determination of the content is exclusively the ELISA method authorized. Since 2005, this has also been prescribed by EU regulation for sulfur (sulphites, sulfur dioxide) with a limit of 10 mg / l (see under sulphurous acid ).
Today, wines are already being produced for diabetic and vegetarian or vegans meet certain requirements, but they must not be labeled as diabetic wine, etc. In 2007, NASA scientist Richard Mathies found a way to quickly detect the headache-causing components of wine. The substances histamine and tyramine contained in red wines of possibly problematic extent can be detected by means of a sensor. Which amounts of alcohol with regular consumption are probably not harmful to health, is under health described. See also below alcoholism and intoxication,