In the Christian faith, the measuring wine (also altar wine) plays a central role in the transformation of bread and wine into Christ's flesh and blood (transubstantiation), which is not only to be understood symbolically, which points to the first supper in the New Testament of Bible declining. That is why wine has always played an important role in the Catholic Church and was (also) motivation to be particularly concerned with viticulture and winemaking to make an effort. In Europe, the three monastic orders of the Benedictine. Carthusians and Cistercian earned great merits. When conquering the New world Through Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors from the beginning of the 16th century, the planting of vines brought along and the production of mess wine were also the beginning and impetus for the viticulture culture in North and South America. The Franciscan monks played in California and the Jesuits in Peru an important role.
Numerous grape varieties still planted there originate from this period, for example the historic Mission / Misión ( Listán Prieto ) and varieties of Criolla group, In the early days of the Christian community, wine and bread were given to everyone (priests and laity) at Mass, and the Lord's Supper was enjoyed “in both forms” by all believers. This then changed over the centuries and was no longer practiced generally and everywhere. For purely practical reasons (e.g. lack of wine or hygienic reasons), mostly only bread in the form of a host was handed out to the laity and only the celebrating priest also enjoyed wine from the church on behalf of the community chalice,
As part of the Reformation, Johann Hus (1369-1415) and Martin sat down first Luther (1483-1546) and Johann Calvin (1509-1564) vehemently advocate returning to Christian origins. The reformers also demanded wine (and not wine) grape juice or other drinks) and not to mix the wine with water. In this regard, there was a so-called "liquoristic dispute" within the church (see under Eucharist ). This custom then prevailed in all Reformation churches, while in the Roman Catholic Church wine was only granted to the priest. After the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) the mess wine was again approved for the layperson (only) on special occasions and at individual fairs.
The quality of Messwein is limited in Roman Catholic canon law under Canon 924 §3 and is far less regulated than you might think: "Vinum debet esse naturale de genimine vitis et non corruptum " (the wine must naturrein and are made from grapes and must not be spoiled). The specification "natural" (natural) used to include one filtration and stabilization. This has been avoided for good reasons, that is, protein stabilization is common. The only specific requirement is that none enrich (Adding sugar to the grape must to increase alcohol). It is not one either alcohol content required.
Until around the middle of the 15th century, only red wine was used, as it suited the symbolization of Christ's blood. Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484) admitted white wine for the first time in 1478. Today everyone can quality wine be used. Messwein can be white or red, dry to sweet and also different in type Still wine. Dessert wine or sparkling wine his. But mostly white wine is used. Red wine is unpopular for practical reasons, since any stains on the altar cloth or chasubles would be easily visible. In August 2014, the German bishops repealed the Messwein regulation from 1976. The reason given was that German wine law ensures good wine quality and largely prohibits the addition of foreign substances. A special approval from special wine suppliers is not necessary. At the Holy Mass, care must be taken that only wines are used that at least meet the requirements of a quality wine and thus satisfy the dignity of the sacrament.
Around wine adulteration To rule out, there used to be a requirement in many countries that wine should be obtained from sworn producers if the naturally pure manufacturing process could not be personally verified. This regulation no longer exists today, although many producers still adorn themselves with the title "sworn wine supplier". Out of habit, however, many parishes continue to buy from the long-established wine maker. A wine called the Mess wine can be offered for the pastors of the diocese, but also in the free sale. It follows from common law that continues Sweet wines may be used that do not meet the above quality characteristics. Sweet wines used to be very popular because they are more durable.
The cute Vinsanto from the Greek Aegean island Santorini was once the measuring wine of the Russian Orthodox Church and an important export item. The Greek Orthodox Church still likes to use sweets today Samos from Greece. In Italy is often a Vin Santo (Holy Wine) used as a measurement wine. Other special wines such as Madeira. port wine and sherry are allowed. In the United States For example, a measurement sparkling wine is also produced in individual countries. Wine also plays an important role in religious rituals in Judaism. For the production of kosher wine but there are much stricter regulations than for the measuring wine.