Name for all originating from North America Wild vines, After the geographical distribution of the Vitis wild species, the subgenus Vitis subg. Vitis divided into a European, Asian and American group. In America, around 30 wild species are recognized. All have 19 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 38). The second only in America occurring Vitis subgenus Vitis subg. Muscadinia has another DNA structure with 20 chromosome pairs (2n = 40). There is only one Muscadinia species (with three varieties) whose correct name should be Muscadinia rotundifolia . But it is mostly as Vitis rotundifolia designated.
Although Muscadinia does not play a special role in wine production, it is due to its resistance against phylloxera and nematodes for the breeding of new grape varieties and documents interesting and sought after. The different chromosomes mean at intersections big problem. A negative feature of some American vines specifically for the European palate is strawberry flavor and Foxton, This is especially true of the Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia to. The most important American species are:
American wild species are important in viticulture because they resistances (Resistance) against diseases and pests imported from Europe to Europe. Thus, many American game species (Vitis riparia and especially Vitis cinerea) are resistant to the roots native to America and introduced to Europe from the mid-19th century phylloxera, In addition, the wild species have natural resistance to the also originating from America harmful fungi true and false mildew on. This phylloxera resistance of the roots was used against the phylloxera spreading rapidly in Europe in the last third of the 19th century. In the finishing become European precious rice on American documents grafted. All non-refined, rootless vines are referred to as direct carrier (Self-supporting).
The solution of the Mehltauproblems is trying to solve by crossing breeding. Here, fungus-resistant wild species are crossed with fungus-prone European grape varieties. The result of this interspecific intersections are so-called hybrids, Although these primary hybrids often have a high fungal resistance, however, in many cases the unwanted foxtone of the wild species has been passed on. Many hybrids and documents were made around the turn of the century by famous French breeders such as Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Christian Oberlin (1831-1915), which is why this variety group is called "French hybrids":
Originally crossed in America and introduced to Europe varieties are called "American hybrids". Various American wild species are crossed among each other, in addition to a high resistance to phylloxera and powdery mildews, with good suitability for as many different locations and soil types to create. Among the most important historical varieties of America include, among others Alden. Alexander. Blanc du Bois. Carlos. Catawba. Clinton. Concord. Delaware. Isabella. Niagara. Noah. Norton. Scuppernong. Steuben and Taylor as well as the first European vinifera vine mission introduced in America ( Listán Prieto ):
American vines are still cultivated in many US states and cultivated because of their fungal resistance throughout South America, Japan, Canada and in the former Eastern Bloc countries. Within the EU, the use of pure American vines for quality wines is prohibited. Also the further planting is forbidden. In Europe, but today for the new breed of PIWI varieties (fungus-resistant) American species used. See regarding Vines pedigree under Vines systematics, such as Asians Vines and Europeans Vines,
Graphic: Norbert FJ Tischelmayer
Grape varieties: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)