Term for all those from North America Wild vines, According to the geographical distribution of the Vitis wild species, the subgenus Vitis subg. Vitis divided into a European, Asian and American group. Around 30 game species are recognized in America. All have 19 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 38). The second Vitis subgenus, Vitis subg. Muscadinia has another DNA structure with 20 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 40). There is only one Muscadinia species (with three varieties), the correct name of which should be Muscadinia rotundifolia . But it is mostly considered Vitis rotundifolia designated.
Muscadinia does not play a special role in wine production, but it is due to its resistance against phylloxera and nematodes for the breeding of new grape varieties and documents interesting and sought after. The different chromosomes mean intersections big problem. A characteristic of some American vines that is negative for the European palate is strawberry aroma and Foxton, This particularly affects the Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia to. The main American species are:
American game species are important in viticulture because they resistances (Resilience) against diseases and pests imported from America to Europe. Many American game species (Vitis riparia and especially Vitis cinerea) are resistant at their roots to those native to America and introduced to Europe from the middle of the 19th century phylloxera, In addition, the game species show natural resistance to the harmful fungi of the real and the false, also from America mildew on. This phylloxera resistance of the roots was used against the phylloxera, which spread rapidly in Europe in the last third of the 19th century. In the finishing become European noble travelers on American ones documents grafted. All unrefined, root-right vines are called direct carrier (Self-supporting).
One tries to solve the powdery mildew problem by crossing breeding. Here, fungus-resistant wild species are crossed with fungus-prone European grape varieties. The result of this interspecific crossings are so called hybrids, Although these primary hybrids often have a high resistance to fungi, the undesirable Foxton of the wild species has also been inherited in many cases. Many hybrids and rootstocks were created around the turn of the century by famous French breeders such as Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Christian Oberlin (1831-1915), which is why this group of varieties is called "French hybrids":
The varieties originally crossed in America and imported to Europe are called "American hybrids". Different American game species are crossed with each other in order to provide documents in addition to a high resistance to phylloxera and mildew species with good suitability for as many different locations and soil types to create. The most important historical varieties in America include Alden. Alexander. Blanc du Bois. Carlos. Catawba. Clinton. Concord. Delaware. Isabella. Niagara. Noah. Norton. Scuppernong. Steuben and Taylor as well as the first European Vinifera vine mission launched in America ( Listán Prieto ):
American vines are still cultivated in many US states and are cultivated in South America, Japan, Canada and the former Eastern Bloc countries because of their resistance to fungi. The use of pure American vines for quality wines is prohibited within the EU. Further planting is also prohibited. In Europe today, however, are used for the new breeding of PIWI varieties (fungus resistant) American species used. See regarding Vines pedigree under Vines systematics, such as Asians Vines and Europeans Vines,
Graphics: Norbert FJ Tischelmayer
Grape varieties: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI)