Organic acids in the form of nitrogen compounds. They are the basic building blocks for animal and vegetable proteins (Proteins) and elemental components of for example enzymes, Glutamines and vitamins, There are around 100 different forms, of which around 20 are also contained in grape must. During the fermentation process they need yeasts certain amino acids for nitrogen supply during metabolism. These must be taken from the must. With sufficient supply of the soil with nitrogen is also in the must contain a sufficient amount of amino acids (about 1 g / l). The nitrogen content in the grapes is negatively influenced by Botrytis (Violation of the grape skin and leaching), lack of water, lack of uptake of nitrogen via the roots and soil greening (competition for elemental nutrients).
A high degree of ripeness of the grapes positively influences the nitrogen content. Because amino acids are formed strongly towards the end of maturation, when the elemental nutrients are removed from the autumnal leaves. Enzymatic decarboxylation produces biogenic amines from the amino acids. This is the most well-known of Histadin educated histamine, Others are cadaverine. putrescine. spermidine. tryptamine and tyramine, The histamine arises partly already during the alcoholic fermentation, in the malolactic fermentation and in higher concentration when stored in wooden barrels. In the autolysis (Dissolution yeast) are formed desired aromatic amino acids. The wine contains 1 to 4 g / l of amino acids (see below) total extract ). The taste sensation umami based on glutamic acid; one of the amino acids.