Important and objective part of a quality control in viticulture. There are several methods for quantitatively determining the constituents in wine in an objective and measurable form by means of technical, physical, optical and chemical aids. This is in contrast to sensory (organoleptic) test in which evaluation is done only by the human sensory organs. In the award of the Official test number (Germany) and the State test number (Austria) for quality wines, an analytical examination is obligatory. It will be among others alcohol content (available, total), total extract. relativ density. residual sugar. sulphurous acid and (only with sparkling wine) Carbon dioxide pressure detected.
There are different methods or measuring devices for determining specific substances or states. Limited opportunities such. For alcohol content, Mostgewicht offer hydrometer. Malligand device. pyknometer. refractometer and Vinometer (see each one there). The most common and many substances comprehensive analysis form is the Rebelein method, When also comprehensive FTIR spectrometer it is a physical infrared measuring device, which is very costly. A basic methodology for analytical food sensory testing is QDA (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis). All new methods are metabolomics and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, This is not only the ingredients in the wine and thus possibly made wine adulteration, but also ancestry and even the quality be determined.
A list of the most important or most common wine ingredients is under the keyword total extract cited. For sensory evaluation by tasting, see wine review and wine address, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,