An important and objective part of a quality control in viticulture. There are various methods of quantifying the ingredients in wine in an objective and measurable form using technical, physical, optical and chemical aids. This is in contrast to sensory (Organoleptic) test, in which an evaluation is carried out only by the human sensory organs. When awarding the Official test number (Germany) and the State test number (Austria) for quality wines, an analytical test is mandatory. Among other things alcohol content (available, total), total extract. relativ density. residual sugar. sulphurous acid and (only for sparkling wine) Carbon dioxide pressure detected.
There are different methods and measuring devices for determining certain substances or states. Restricted options such as B. for alcohol content, Mostgewicht offer among other things hydrometer. Malligand device. pyknometer. refractometer and Vinometer (see there). The most common and comprehensive form of analysis is that Rebelein method, With the also comprehensive FTIR spectrometer is a physical infrared measuring device, but it is very expensive. A basic methodology for analytical food sensory testing is QDA (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis). Completely new methods are metabolomics and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, This means that not only the ingredients in the wine and, if applicable, can be done wine adulteration, but also origin and even that in the future quality be determined.
A list of the most important or most common wine ingredients can be found under the keyword total extract cited. Regarding the sensory evaluation through tasting see under wine review and wine address, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,