One of the most important criteria for a specific quality and distinctiveness of a wine is the controlled geographical origin of the grapes from which it was made. The "controlled" means that the relevant wine-law requirements are also strictly checked on a regular basis. The most important reason is the protection against wine adulteration, Already in the antiquity Occasionally there was the custom of naming the wines according to their origin. The oldest European denominations of origin include the 1716 defined area for Chianti, as well as the 1756 defined borders for port wine, But the big pioneer of a nationwide system was France where after the end of the First World War an appellation system ( Appellation d'Origine Protégée ) was decided. It defined a locally defined and controlled origin and production methods for agricultural products. Under the sovereignty of INAO (Institut National des Appellations d'Origine), the rules for viticulture were perfected after the Second World War.
Closely related to the appellation system in France is the comprehensive and internalized concept of the producers terroir, This includes the complex influence of climate (Microclimate), soil type. varieties and art of the winemaker on the distinctive wine style of a smallest area. The French system served as a model for the wine legislation of most wine-growing countries Europe and partly also the New world, The laws in the countries not only regulate the origin, but also contain rules for permissible Quality wine-grape varieties. pruning and maximum yield, as well as for production and condition of the wine as minimum and / or maximum quantities for alcohol content. acid and residual sugar, as well as certain flavors regarding sugar content from dry to sweet,
Within the EU, since August 2009, there has been a country-specific designation or validity for all member states. quality system, which divides the wines into two quality classes, namely with and without denomination of origin. The origin implicitly refers to a very specific type of wine. In France, it goes even further, because in certain regions such as the Bordeaux or Burgundy the specification of a winery such as Château Latour. Château Margaux. Château Mouton-Rothschild. Château d'Yquem or Domaine de la Romanée-Conti analogous to an even narrower, often very small denomination of origin.
The often used statement "The smaller the region of origin, the better the (probably) expected quality of the wine" is certainly unfair to excellent wines from larger areas of origin (which of course there is), but has a great legitimacy. Wines with a "great" Denomination of Origin such as a region like Bordeaux. Castile and Leon or Sicily, or even a country such as Greece, Italy, Spain, Austria or Germany usually also mean lower quality, as for the production much lower and far less stringent quality criteria apply.
After the pioneers France. Italy. Portugal and Spain is the origin-oriented system also called " Romanesque wine law " designated. In Austria, one was named in 2002 DAC (Districtus Austriae Controllatus). In contrast, the "Germanic wine law", which is not based on the origin, but primarily on the Mostgewicht (Sugar content of the berries) and naming of the vine based. This is especially in Germany and Austria applied. In Austria, one still usually orders his "favorite grape variety" without indication of origin, for example in a restaurant Zweigelt or Green Valtellina,
But this gives no indication of origin or producer. Grüner Veltliner offers a well-stocked restaurant from various winegrowing areas such as Kamptal. Kremstal. Mittelburgenland. Wachau. Wagram or Weinviertel on. And these may differ considerably in taste. Furthermore, one has thus made no statement about the desired expansion (dry, sweet, sweet). But if you buy one chablis, then you know that it is a dry French white wine unmixed out Chardonnay but the variety am label is not specified. At a Rioja again, it is mostly a red wine Tempranillo but it can also be a white wine.
See a list of different classification systems under the keyword Grand Cru, The EU-wide classification system is detailed below quality system described. All work and measures in the vineyard in the course of the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information under wine law is available at wine law,