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Out bacteria and specific yeast fungi (cephalic yeasts) in the form of a whitish-gray skin (cowsme), which grow rapidly on nutrient-containing fluids. The Kahmhefen are oxygenated and can after the fermentation several millimeters are formed strongly on the wine surface when the container is not bung full is and by the oxygen bubble a rapid increase takes place. The layer is also called "mycoderma vini" (mycelium skin). The wine-damaging Kahmhefen breathe alcohol acetic acid and Acetic acid ethyl ester and additionally act as a vehicle for Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria). Particularly vulnerable are young, low-alcohol wines with low sulfur dioxide content. When this happens, one is called "framed" wine faults, The infested wine smells musty and has a thin, peel and acetic taste of rancid butter. This can be done by periodically refilling the container or through inert gas (Protective gas) can be prevented. The in the production of vinegar formed mother of vinegar is also called "vinegar cream". A desirable Kahmschicht is at the Sherry production effective pile, See also below yeasts,

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