The first attempts at viticulture were made in this South American country as early as 1541, when Spanish conquistadores planted vines at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata on the Atlantic coast. However, this was unsuccessful. Argentine viticulture really started producing altar wine, The citizens of the northern city of Santiago del Estero in the province of the same name built a church and looked for a pastor. The Jesuit Father Cedrón, who came from Spain with the Conquistadores, traveled from the other side of the Andes Chile and brought as a gift cotton seeds, wheat, barley and some European grape varieties, including the historically important Spanish variety Listán Prieto, which is referred to here as Criolla Chica, Uva Negra or Uva Negra Vino (see also under Criolla ). These vines were planted in the three provinces from 1556 La Rioja. Mendoza and San Juan planted. By the end of the 16th century, commercial winegrowing had already begun there.
Don Tiburcio is considered to be the founder of Argentine viticulture Benegas (1844-1910) who founded the winery in Godoy Cruz in 1883 Trapiche founded and successfully experimented with European and Chilean vines. His father-in-law Don Eusebio Blanco wrote the book "Las viñas y los vinos de Mendoza" in 1872 as the first fundamental work on Argentine viticulture. The French agronomist Michel Aimé Pouget (1821-1875) received the order from Argentine President Domino Faustino Sarmiento (1811-1888) in 1853 to introduce suitable vines. Especially the Malbec variety ( Cot ) proved to be suitable and is today at the top in terms of quantity. In the first half of the 18th and late 19th centuries there were two major European flows of immigration from Italy, Spain and France. These emigrants gave tremendous positive impetus to viticulture. At the beginning of the 20th century, the oenologist Leopoldo Suárez Zapata (1882-1932) in Mendoza many hundreds of European vines introduced. The winegrowing regions (dark green = Argentina):
The heavily dismembered vineyards stretch from Salta in the north to Chubut in the south. They form a strip in the west of 1,750 meters long and 100 kilometers wide along the foothills of the Andes. The average altitude of 600 to 1,200 meters and sometimes up to 2,400 meters results in cool night temperatures. The winery Colomé in Salta, vines are even cultivated at 3,111 meters and thus have the highest vineyards of the world. Because of less rainfall with an average of 200 to 250 millimeters per year (with relatively often hail ), lower humidity and great dryness (with the advantage less often fungal diseases ) is an artificial one irrigation unavoidable. This is done primarily through a canal network that was started centuries ago by the Native Americans. The water comes from rivers carrying meltwater with their sources in the nearby Andes, as well as from thousands of deep wells with water pumped from a depth of 60 to 120 meters and is led through the vineyards in tortuous furrows.
In 2012 the area under vines was 222,000 hectares, of which 11.77 million hectoliters of wine were produced. On around 10,000 hectares are pure table grapes, another 3,500 hectares are used for the production of raisins, An Argentinian specialty is the division of the grape varieties into red, pink and white varieties. In the mid-1970s, the area under vines was still 350,000 hectares. A white wine boom and regulatory measures cleared 130,000 hectares. The high-yielding pink Criolla Chica, Criolla Grande, Cereza, Moscatel Rosada and others become simple light red wines and RTK (rectified concentrated grape must) processed. Two thirds mass wines from white and pink varieties in an open taproom, Tetra Paks and larger glass bottles are marketed. The most common variety is the Malbec (ideal for Argentine conditions) ( Cot ). Since the phylloxera hardly a meaning, a large part of the vines still grows on own roots. However, it is increasingly being switched to grafted vines. The Blend 2010:
Synonyms or arg. Surname
|Cereza||Ceresa, Cereza Nera||pink||29189|
|Criolla Grande||Criolla Grande Sanjuanina||pink||17,080|
|Pedro Giménez||Pedro Jiménez||White||12132|
|Torrontés Riojano||see also under Torrontés||White||7683|
|Moscatel Rosada||Moscatel Rosado||pink||7259|
|Tempranillo||Cencibel, Tinta del País||red||6120|
|Aspiran Bouschet||Aspiran Bouchet||red||3042|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||Moscatel de Alejandria||White||2939|
|Torrontés Sanjuanino||see also under Torrontés||White||2048|
|Trebbiano Toscano||Ugni Blanc||White||1922|
|Torrontés Mendocino||see also under Torrontés||White||713|
|Béquignol Noir||Béquin Rouge||red||698|
|Listán Prieto||Criolla Chica, Uva Negra||pink||423|
|Maticha||Bou Touggala, Bou Touquala Chetoui||White||275|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||-||red||166|
|Goldmuskateller (Moscato Giallo)||Moscatel Amarillo||White||133|
The "Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura" (INV), founded in 1959, is one for the guidelines quality winegrowing as well as the control responsible. There are three quality categories. The "Vinos de Corte" come mainly from Mendoza and San Juan and are intended for blending. With the light "Vinos Communes" no value is placed on origin, vintage or variety. The "Vinos Finos" are subject to precise regulations regarding vintage. origin. vine and bottle aging, In 1993 a system of origin was introduced. The three-level quality system consists of “Indicaciones de Procedencia (IP), Indicaciones Geográficas (IG) and the highest level Denominación de Origen Controlada (DOC). Maximum yields are also set for the latter. Luján de Cuyo (Mendoza) was classified as the first DOC in 1992. Maipú, Rio Negro, San Rafael and Valle de Calchaqui followed. Two producers who are among the largest wine companies in the world count, are Catena Zapata and Peñaflor, Others are listed under the regions.