First attempts at viticulture existed in this South American country as early as 1541, when Spanish Conquistadores planted vineyards at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata on the Atlantic coast. This was unsuccessful. The Argentine viticulture really started with the production of altar wine, The citizens of the northern city of Santiago del Estero in the province of the same name built a church and looked for a pastor. The Jesuit priest Cedrón, who came from Spain with the Conquistadores, traveled from the other side of the Andes Chile Cottonseed, wheat, barley and some European grape varieties, including the historically significant Spanish variety Listán Prieto, which is referred to here as Criolla Chica, Uva Negra or Uva Negra Vino (see also under Criolla ). These vines were from 1556 in the three provinces La Rioja. Mendoza and San Juan planted. There, then, by the end of the 16th century partly already a commercial viticulture has arisen.
The founder of Argentine viticulture is Don Tiburcio Benegas (1844-1910), who in 1883 in Godoy Cruz the winery Trapiche founded and successfully experimented with European and Chilean vines. His father-in-law Don Eusebio Blanco wrote the book "Las viñas y los vinos de Mendoza" in 1872 as the first fundamental work on the Argentine viticulture. The French agronomist Michel Aimé Pouget (1821-1875) received in 1853 from the Argentine President Domino Faustino Sarmiento (1811-1888) the order to introduce suitable vines. Especially the variety Malbec ( Cot ) proved to be suitable and is today in terms of quantity at the top. In the first half of the 18th and at the end of the 19th century there were two major European immigration flows from Italy, Spain and France. These emigrants gave the viticulture enormously positive impulse. At the beginning of the 20th century, the oenologist Leopoldo Suárez Zapata (1882-1932) in Mendoza many hundreds of European vines introduced. The wine-growing regions (dark green = Argentina):
The heavily fragmented vineyards extend from Salta in the north to Chubut in the south. They form a strip in the west of 1,750 meters long and 100 kilometers wide along the foothills of the Andes. The altitude of an average of 600 to 1,200 and sometimes up to 2,400 meters results in cool night temperatures. The winery Colomé In Salta cultivates vines even in 3,111 meters and thus owns the highest vineyards of the world. Due to lower rainfall with an average of 200 to 250 millimeters a year (with relatively often hail ), lower humidity and great dryness (with the advantage less often fungal diseases ) is an artificial one irrigation unavoidable. This is mainly due to a sewer network, which was started centuries ago by the Native Americans. The water comes from rivers leading to meltwater with their sources in the nearby Andes, as well as from thousands of deep wells with water pumped from 60 to 120 meters depth and is led in winding furrows through the vineyards.
In 2012, the area was 222,000 hectares, of which 11.77 million hectoliters of wine were produced. On about 10,000 hectares are pure table grapes, another 3,500 hectares are used for the production of raisins, An Argentine peculiarity is the classification of grape varieties in red, pink and white varieties. Mid-1970s, the vineyard had amounted to 350,000 hectares. A white wine boom and regulatory measures have cleared 130,000 hectares. The high yielding pink Criolla Chica, Criolla Grande, Cereza, Moscatel Rosada and others turn into plain red and white wines RTK processed (rectified concentrated grape must). Two thirds will be mass wines white and pink varieties in the open dispenser, Tetra Paks and larger glass bottles marketed. The most common variety is the Malbec ( Cot ). Because the phylloxera has hardly played a meaning, a large part of the vines still grows on their own roots. However, it is increasingly being switched to grafted vines. The Blend 2010:
Synonyms or arg. Surname
|Cereza||Ceresa, Cereza Nera||pink||29189|
|Criolla Grande||Criolla Grande Sanjuanina||pink||17,080|
|Pedro Giménez||Pedro Jiménez||White||12132|
|TorrontÃ © Riojano||see also under Torrontés||White||7683|
|Moscatel Rosada||Moscatel Rosado||pink||7259|
|Tempranillo||Cencibel, Tinta del País||red||6120|
|Aspiran Bouschet||Aspiran Bouchet||red||3042|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||Moscatel de Alejandría||White||2939|
|Torrontés Sanjuanino||see also under Torrontés||White||2048|
|Trebbiano Toscano||Ugni Blanc||White||1922|
|TorrontÃ © s Mendocino||see also under Torrontés||White||713|
|Béquignol Noir||Béquin Rouge||red||698|
|Listán Prieto||Criolla Chica, Uva Negra||pink||423|
|Maticha||Bou Touggala, Bou Touquala Chetoui||White||275|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||-||red||166|
|Goldmuskateller (Moscato Giallo)||Moscatel Amarillo||White||133|
Founded in 1959, the "Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura" (INV) is responsible for the guidelines of a quality winegrowing as well as the control responsible. There are three quality categories. The "Vinos de Corte" come mainly from Mendoza and San Juan and are intended for blending. In the light "Vinos Communes" no value is placed on origin, vintage or purity. The "Vinos Finos" are subject to strict rules regarding vintage. ancestry. vine and bottle aging, In 1993, an origin system was introduced. The three-level quality system consists of Indicaciones de Procedencia (IP), Indicaciones Geográficas (IG) and the highest level Denominación de Origen Controlada (DOC). For the latter, maximum yields are set. Luján de Cuyo (Mendoza) was classified as the first DOC in 1992. Followed by Maipú, Rio Negro, San Rafael and Valle de Calchaqui. Two producers belonging to the largest wine companies in the world count, are Catena Zapata and Peñaflor, Others are listed below each region.