The famous scholastic scholar and scholar Arnaldus de Villanova, also from Spain, also known as Arnaud de Villeneuve or Arnold von Villanova (1240-1311), taught as professor of medicine at the university Montpellier in today Languedoc (France). He was one of the most influential and important doctors of his time and stood as an alchemist in the reputation of a goldsmith. His medical services claimed popes such as Boniface VIII (1235-1303) and kings like Frederick II (1272-1337). When he traveled to Pope Clement V (around 1250-1314) on behalf of the latter, he died in a shipwreck. He dealt intensively with the medicinal properties of wine and its positive effect on the wine health, Its strong from the Greek doctor Galen (129-216) influenced work "Liber de Vinis" acts exclusively on this subject.
He's special spiced wines as a medicine, for example ox tongue wine for healing mental health and rosemary wine as an appetite enhancer, dentifrice, facial beautifier and hair restorer. In addition, wine helps against melancholy, serves as a medicine for the liver, kidneys, urinary tract and veins, and provides relief in hemorrhoids and cold in winter. In addition to these partly abstruse claims, he also gives sound advice for the winemaking, So he describes how to improve lazy, pale wines with a bad taste, explains the peeling, warns of impure barrels and recommends proper grape ripeness. He denounces wine falsification:
Note that some wine merchants cheat, mistakenly make sour or bitter wines appear sweet by persuading the probationer to eat liquorice or nuts or old salty cheese first. You can protect yourself by tasting the wine in the morning after rinsing your mouth and eating three or four bites of bread dipped in water, because if you try a wine with an empty or full stomach, you will find that your sense of taste is spoiled ,
Villanova experimented at the Templars vineyard at Perpignan in the Roussillon around 1285 with brandy production. After Arab recipes he distilled alcohol from wine. Incidentally, the "Aqua Vitae" (life water = brandy) was one of Villanova's universal remedies. He noted in his experiments that stopped by the addition of alcohol, the fermentation and residual sugar obtained in the wine (see under Spriten ). In 1299, Villanova received a patent for manufacture from the King of Mallorca. He tells of feeling much younger by daily enjoyment. That was the birth of the Vin doux naturel, Furthermore, Villanova discovered the toxicity of carbon monoxide and decaying meat. Villanova was the first to describe the appearance and behavior of mineral acids over metals. He was the author of numerous writings such as the four-volume work "Handbook of All Medicine" (Breviarium practicae), as well as of about 20 alchemical writings.