Ancient landscape or area between the mountains of Armenia, today Iran (Persia) and the Syrian Arabian desert. The countries of today Jordan. Lebanon and Syria in the Middle East belonged to the immediate sphere of influence. The area covered the northeast of Mesopotamia and the north of today Iraq, The entire area had a significant impact on the development of viticulture and wine culture. In the 17th century BC Chr. Assyria fought against the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) independence, the capital was Assyria. King Salmanassar I (1274-1245) conquered Babylonia, extended Assyrian rule to all of Mesopotamia and founded the city of Kalhu near what is now Nimrud in northern Iraq around 1250 BC. Under Assurnasirpal II (884-858) Kalhu was raised to the capital. In today's ruin, clay tablets were found, on which the wine rations for the 6,000-person household of the ruler are listed - the higher the hierarchical rank, the greater the ration and quality.
In the 9th century BC A major Assyrian empire developed from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. Around 800 BC The legendary Queen Semiramis ruled. King Salmanassar V (in the Bible he is called Salmanazar - reigned from 727-722 BC Chr.) Conquered 722 BC. The northern kingdom Israel and made it an Assyrian province. The Assyrian king Sennacherib (705-681 BC) destroyed 689 BC The city of Babylon and made Nineveh the capital. King Assurbanipal (668-625 BC) had a large clay tablet library built, where also the texts of the epic discovered in 1853 about the Sumerian king Gilgamesh (2700 BC). The Babylonian king Nabupolossar (626-605 BC) overthrew the rule of the Assyrians and under his son Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC) developed Babylonia again to the great empire. In 539 BC The Persian king Cyrus II (559-529 BC) conquered the Babylonian empire including Assyria.