In January 1788, an English ship with 300 convicts and security personnel landed on the southeastern coast of Australia in the harbor of Sydney, which was founded in the same year. Commander was Captain Arthur Phillip (1738-1814), who was also the first governor of the future state of New South Wales. He stated in writing that in such a favorable climate viticulture can be driven to any desired degree of perfection . It was immediately started with the planting of the brought vines (where today is Farm Cove). But it would take 200 years for Australian winegrowing to establish itself. The first decades became so excessive rum drunk that the camp was called "Rum Corps".
As a pioneer and even "father of Australian viticulture" is the Scot James Busby (1802-1871) who had acquired knowledge of wine in France and emigrated to Australia. In 1825 he founded North of Sydney in Hunter Valley a farm - in one of today's best Australian wine regions. From a trip to Europe, he brought in 1833 with hundreds of grape seedlings, including was the Syrah which later became famous as Shiraz in Australia. Busby published writings and books on vines, viticulture and winemaking. His instructions used Silesian immigrants from 1841 when creating vineyards.
In 1845, the English physician Dr. Christopher Penfold his winery in Barossa Valley that under Penfolds still exists today. A second pioneer in this area was the German Joseph Ernest Seppelt (1813-1868) in 1851 with his winery Seppeltfield. John Riddoch (1827-1901) put the first vineyards in the famous area in the early 1890s Coonawarra and triggered a boom there. Equally important was Thomas Hardy who died in the year 1853 McLaren Vale founded a winery. An important role was also played by Swiss artists such as Hubert de Castella (1825-1907), who cultivated wine in the Yarra Valley justified. In 1919, a viticulture research institute was founded in Merbein (Sunraysia, Victoria), which then went to the research institute in 1927 CSIRO was affiliated.
Two more important ones Wine-producing institutions are these AWRI and the Charles Sturt University, For over 100 years, mainly heavy, alcohol-rich sweet wines were produced in Australia, which were marketed as "Australian Port". From the early 1960s was initially a change to fresh white wines. Significantly involved in this development was the well-known wine author and winemaker Len Evans (1930-2006). A milestone was that of the legendary butler Max Schubert (1915-1994) in 1959 created "Grange Hermitage", a red wine produced in Bordeaux style of the winery Penfolds, This was then from the mid-1960s, the initial point for the production of excellent red wines, especially from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Shiraz, which are both sorted or marketed as cuvées. Another pioneer was the 1961 immigrated from Germany Wolfgang Blass (* 1934).
Australia became a true wine drink nation within just one generation. Journalists like Len Evans, James Halliday, Campbell Mattinson and Jeremy Oliver through books, publications and wine guide contributed. In 2012, the vineyard covered 162,000 hectares, of which 12.259 million hectoliters of wine were produced. There was a massive growth of 60%, since in 2000 it was 106,000 hectares. About 80% is accounted for by multinationals. Australian oenologists are considered Flying winemakers sought after worldwide.
Most will be varietals (Varietal wines) produced. About 70% of the production is easier in Bag-in-Boxes bottled mass wine, There are also large quantities table grapes and raisins generated. For the most part, international varieties are grown. At the bottom of the table are seven Australian new varieties cited that were created for the specific Australian climate / soil conditions. About 40% are white wine varieties and 60% red wines. The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Australian name||hectare|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||White||Muscat Gordo Blanco||2043|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||1748|
|Verdelho||White||Albillo de Nava, Verdelho Blanco||1535|
|Gewurztraminer||White||Savagnin Rose Aromatique||834|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||Frontignac||533|
|Muscat Rouge / Muscat Blanc||White||Brown Muscat||230|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||149|
|Trebbiano Toscano||White||White Shiraz, Ugni Blanc||86|
The information on the label are relatively easy. For vintage year must be 85% of this year. A leavening the wine is allowed, but that enrich banned with sugar. In terms of barrel aging is indicated "unwooded" (without wood), "wood matured" (oak barrel or Wood chips ) or "barrel fermented" (oak barrel). If several grape varieties are listed on the label, the order results from the share. It is common to use grapes from different growing areas for a wine, this is called Multi-district-blend (this must match the information regarding origin). The bottle's often used back label often contains details about the harvest, vinification, aging and flavor.
The producers have since distanced themselves from the formerly common use of European generic names such as Chablis, Claret, Burgundy, Champagne, Port and Sherry. The export of products with these names to Europe was banned. This was ratified in June 2007 with an EU-Australia agreement and, of course, vice versa (though there is not a single case of a European producer using Coonawarra or Barossa Valley, for example). In 2001, the appellation system "Geographical Indications" (GI) was introduced. Compared to many countries, the wine law is very simple and leaves a lot of scope. There are no grape varieties, cut, method of education, alcohol content or wine style prescribed, but only defined cultivation areas.
Because of the huge land area that is climate very different. It ranges from hot and dry especially in Western Australia (especially in the Swan Valley ) and Northern Australia until relatively cool on the southern offshore island of Tasmania. In the dry areas, if necessary, an artificial irrigation, About three quarters of the vineyards are located in the cooler South Australia. The vineyards range from Brisbane in the northeast (Queensland) to Perth in the west (Western Australia) in scattered form over approximately 4,000 kilometers.
If a growing area is specified, 85% of the wine must come from there. The current structure is not yet final, as there are objections from many producers (for example, some wineries complaining just outside the famous Coonawarra lie). The nesting system starts with a superzone, which covers a huge area with several states. The six states and two territories make up eight sometimes huge GI areas. These in turn are divided into over 40 States / Zones (in bold ), which divide into just under 70 regions, which in turn can include subregions (in brackets).
SOUTH EASTERN AUSTRALIA - This super zone covers the entire state of New South Wales, Tasmania and Victoria, as well as parts of Queensland and South Australia. This makes up 95% of Australia's vineyards. Wines with this designation of origin can, so to speak, be cuvées from various regions of Australia.
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY - A 2,430 km² enclave with the capital Canberra, which is surrounded by the state of New South Wales. There are no GI's.
NEW SOUTH WALES - The state in the southeast is best known for the Hunter Valley. The GI areas are Big Rivers : Murray Darling, Perricoota, Riverina, Swan Hill; Central Ranges : Cowra. Mudgee. orange; Hunter Valley : Hunter (Allandale, Belford, Broke Fordwich, Dalwood, Pokolbin, Rothbury); Northern Rivers : Hastings River; Northern Slopes ; South Coast : New England, Shoalhaven Coast, Southern Highlands; Southern New South Wales : Canberra District, Gundagai, Hilltops, Tumbarumba; Western Plains
NORTHERN TERRITORY - The Federal Territory , located in the central North, has no statehood in contrast to the six states. The majority is hot and dry and unsuitable for viticulture. The only winery is Château Hornsby in Alice Springs. There are no other GI areas.
QUEENSLAND - This second largest state in the east is of lesser importance in Australian viticulture, but is on the upswing. The vineyards cover only 100 hectares in the very south. Nevertheless, there are about 80 wineries, the largest of which is Barambah Ridge. The three regions are Coastal hinterland, Granite Belt and South Burnett.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA - The state provides 50% of production. The GI areas are Adelaide = Superzone with Barossa, Fleurieu and Mount Lofty Ranges; Barossa : Barossa Valley. Eden Valley (High Eden, Springton); Far North ; Fleurieu : Currency Creek, Kangaroo Island, Langhorne Creek. McLaren Vale (Clarendon), Southern Fleurieu; Limestone Coast : Coonawarra Mount Benson Padthaway, Robe, Wrattonbully; Lower Murray : Riverland; Mount Lofty Ranges : Adelaide Hills (Gumeracha, Lenswood, Piccadilly Valley), Adelaide Plains, Clare Valley (Auburn, Clare, Hill River, Polish Hill River, Sevenhill, Watervale); The Peninsulas : Southern Eyre Peninsula
TASMANIA - The offshore island or federal state Tasmania is the southernmost winegrowing region. There are the three regions East Coast Tasmania, Northern Tasmania and Southern Tasmania.
VICTORIA - The state's GI's in the southeast are 200 kilometers from Melbourne. Central Victoria : Bendigo. Goulburn Valley (Nagambie Lakes), Heathcote, Strathbogie Ranges, Upper Goulburn; Gippsland; North East Victoria : Alpine Valleys (Kiev Valley, Ovens Valley), Beechworth, Glenrowan, King Valley (Myrrhee, Whitland), Rutherglen (Wahgunyah); North West Victoria : Murray Darling, Swan Hill; Port Philip : Geelong. Macedon Ranges. Mornington Peninsula, Sunbury, Yarra Valley; Western Victoria : Grampians (Great Western), Henty, Pyrenees
WESTERN AUSTRALIA - Biggest state near the coast with the hottest areas. Around the city of Perth and further south, there are some areas in which dominated by the coastal Mediterranean climate. The GI areas are Central Western Australia ; Eastern Plains ; Inland & North of Western Australia ; Greater Perth : Peel, Perth Hills, Swan District ( Swan Valley ); South West Australia : Blackwood Valley, Geographe. Great Southern (Albany, Denmark, Frankland River, Mount Barker, Porongurup), Manjimup, Margaret River. Pemberton; West Australian South East Coastal : Esperance.
Some of the most famous Australian producers include (some of them of more historical significance) Accolade Wines. All Saints. Brand's. Brown Brothers. Coldstream Hills. Glaetzer. Hardy's. Heggie. Hill Smith Estate. Katnook Estate. Lindeman's. Loxton Winery. McWilliams. Mildara. Mitolo. Orlando. Penfolds. Peter Lehmann. Pewsey Vale. Rosemount Estate. Rothbury Estate. Rymill. Seppelt. South Corp. Taltarni. Warburn Estate. Wolf pale (see also under Treasury Wine Estates ) Wynns and Yalumba,