In January 1788, an English ship with 300 convicts and security guards landed on the south-east coast of Australia in the port of the city of Sydney, which was founded in the same year. The commander was Captain Arthur Phillip (1738-1814), who also became the first governor of the later state of New South Wales. He noted in writing that viticulture can be carried out to such a degree of perfection in such a favorable climate . The planting of the vines brought along (where Farm Cove is today) started immediately. But it should take 200 years for Australian winegrowing to establish itself. The first few decades became so excessive rum drunk that the camp was called "Rum Corps".
The Scotsman James is considered a pioneer and even "father of Australian viticulture" Busby (1802-1871) who had acquired knowledge of wine in France and emigrated to Australia. In 1825 he founded in the north of Sydney Hunter Valley a farm - in one of today's best Australian wine regions. From a trip to Europe in 1833, he brought hundreds of grape seedlings with him, including that Syrah who later became famous in Australia as Shiraz. Busby published writings and books on vine science, viticulture and winemaking. From 1841, Silesian immigrants used his instructions to create vineyards.
In 1845, the English doctor Dr. Christopher Penfold founded his winery in Barossa Valley that under Penfolds still exists today. A second pioneer in this area was the German Joseph Ernest Seppelt (1813-1868) in 1851 with his Seppeltfield winery. John Riddoch (1827-1901) first laid vineyards in the famous area in the early 1890s Coonawarra and triggered a boom there. Thomas was equally important Hardy who in 1853 McLaren Vale founded a winery. Swiss people also played an important role, such as Hubert de Castella (1825-1907), who grew wine in Yarra Valley justified. In 1919 a wine-growing research institute was founded in Merbein (Sunraysia, state of Victoria), which then passed to the research institute in 1927 CSIRO was affiliated.
Two more important ones Wine-producing institutions are these AWRI and the Charles Sturt University, For more than 100 years, mainly heavy, alcohol-rich sweet wines were produced in Australia, which were marketed as "Australian Port". From the beginning of the 1960s there was a change to fresh white wines. The well-known wine author and winemaker Len was instrumental in this development Evans (1930-2006). A milestone was that of the legendary cellar master Max Schubert (1915-1994) in 1959 created "Grange Hermitage", a red wine made in Bordeaux style of the winery Penfolds, Ultimately, this was the starting point for the production of excellent red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Shiraz from the mid-1960s, which are marketed as single varieties or as blends. Another pioneer was the one who immigrated from Germany in 1961 Wolfgang Blass (* 1934).
Australia became a real wine drinking nation in just one generation. Journalists like Len also have this Evans, James Halliday, Campbell Mattinson and Jeremy Oliver through books, publications and wine guide contributed. In 2012, the vineyard area was 162,000 hectares, of which 12.259 million hectoliters of wine were produced. There was huge growth of 60%, because in 2000 it was 106,000 hectares. About 80% are multinationals. Australian oenologists are considered Flying Winemakers sought after worldwide.
Mostly varietals (Varietal wines) produced. About 70% of the production is easier in Bag-in-Boxes bottled mass wine, There are also large quantities table grapes and raisins generated. Most international varieties are grown. At the bottom of the table are seven Australian ones new varieties cited, which were created for the special Australian climate / soil conditions. Around 40% are white and 60% red. The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Australian name||hectare|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||White||Muscat Gordo Blanco||2043|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||1748|
|Verdelho||White||Albillo de Nava, Verdelho Blanco||1535|
|Gewurztraminer||White||Savagnin Rose Aromatique||834|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||Frontignac||533|
|Muscat Rouge / Muscat Blanc||White||Brown Muscat||230|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||149|
|Trebbiano Toscano||White||White Shiraz, Ugni Blanc||86|
The information on the label are relatively easy. If the year is specified, 85% of this year must be. A leavening of wine is allowed, but that enrich banned with sugar. In terms of barrel aging is given "unwooded" (without wood), "wood matured" (oak barrel or Wood chips ) or "barrel fermented" (oak barrel). If several grape varieties are listed on the label, the order is based on the proportion. It is common to use grapes from different growing areas for a wine, this is called Multi-district-blend (this must match the information regarding origin). The bottle's back label, which is often used, often contains details about the harvest, vinification, aging and taste.
In the meantime, the producers have distanced themselves from the former use of European generic names such as Chablis, Claret, Burgundy, Champagne, Port and Sherry. The export of products with these names to Europe was prohibited. This was ratified in June 2007 with an agreement between the EU and Australia and, of course, is also the other way round (but not a single case is known that a European producer would have used Coonawarra or Barossa Valley, for example). In 2001 the "Geographical Indications" (GI) appellation system was introduced. Compared to many countries, the wine law is very simple and leaves plenty of scope. Neither grape varieties, pruning, upbringing method, alcohol content or wine style are prescribed, only cultivation zones are specified.
Because of the huge land area, it is climate very different. It ranges from hot and dry especially in Western Australia (especially in the Swan Valley ) and Northern Australia to relatively cool on the southern island of Tasmania. If necessary, an artificial one takes place in the dry areas irrigation, Around three quarters of the vineyards are in cooler South Australia. The scattered vineyards stretch from Brisbaine in the northeast (Queensland) to Perth in the west (Western Australia) for around 4,000 kilometers.
If a region is specified, 85% of the wine must come from there. The current structure is not yet to be seen as final, as there are objections from many producers (for example, some wineries complain that are just outside the famous Coonawarra lie). The nesting system begins with a super zone that spans a huge area with multiple states. The six states and two territories form eight, sometimes huge, GI areas. These in turn are divided into over 40 states / zones (in bold ), which are divided into almost 70 regions, which in turn can contain subregions (in brackets).
SOUTH EASTERN AUSTRALIA - This super zone spans the entire states of New South Wales, Tasmania and Victoria, as well as parts of Queensland and South Australia. This accounts for 95% of the Australian vineyards. Wines with this designation of origin can, so to speak, be cuvées from various areas of Australia.
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY - A 2,430 km² enclave with the capital Canberra, which is enclosed by the state of New South Wales. There are no GIs.
NEW SOUTH WALES - The state in the southeast has become known primarily for the Hunter Valley. The GI areas are Big Rivers : Murray Darling Perricoota Riverina, Swan Hill; Central Ranges : Cowra. Mudgee. orange; Hunter Valley : Hunter (Allandale, Belford, Broke Fordwich, Dalwood, Pokolbin, Rothbury); Northern Rivers : Hastings River; Northern Slopes ; South Coast : New England, Shoalhaven Coast, Southern Highlands; Southern New South Wales : Canberra District, Gundagai, Hilltops, Tumbarumba; Western Plains
NORTHERN TERRITORY - In contrast to the six federal states, the federal territory in the central north has no statehood. The majority is hot and dry and unsuitable for viticulture. Château Hornsby is the only winery in Alice Springs. There are no other GI areas.
QUEENSLAND - This second-largest state in the east is less important in Australian viticulture, but is on the upswing. The vineyards cover only 100 hectares in the far south. Nevertheless, there are around 80 wineries, the largest of which is Barambah Ridge. The three regions are Coastal Hinterland, Granite Belt and South Burnett.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA - The state located in the central south produces around half of the Australian wine production. The GI areas are Adelaide = Superzone with Barossa, Fleurieu and Mount Lofty Ranges; Barossa : Barossa Valley. Eden Valley (High Eden, Springton); Far North ; Fleurieu : Currency Creek, Kangaroo Island, Langhorne Creek. McLaren Vale (Clarendon), Southern Fleurieu; Limestone Coast : Coonawarra, Mount Benson, Mount Gambier, Padthaway, Robe, wrattonbully; Lower Murray : Riverland; Mount Lofty Ranges : Adelaide Hills (Gumeracha, Lenswood, Piccadilly Valley), Adelaide Plains, Clare Valley (Auburn, Clare, Hill River, Polish Hill River, Sevenhill, Watervale); The Peninsulas : Southern Eyre Peninsula
TASMANIA - The offshore island or federal state Tasmania is the southernmost wine-growing region. There are three regions: East Coast Tasmania, Northern Tasmania and Southern Tasmania.
VICTORIA - The state's GI's in the southeast are 200 kilometers from Melbourne. Central Victoria : Bendigo. Goulburn Valley (Nagambie Lakes), Heathcote, Strathbogie Ranges, Upper Goulburn; Gippsland; North East Victoria : Alpine Valleys (Kiewa Valley, Ovens Valley), Beechworth, Glenrowan, King Valley (Myrrh, Whitlands), Rutherglen (Wahgunyah); North West Victoria : Murray Darling, Swan Hill; Port Philip : Geelong. Macedon ranges. Mornington Peninsula Sunbury Yarra Valley; Western Victoria : Grampians (Great Western), Henty, Pyrenees
WESTERN AUSTRALIA - Largest state near the coast with the hottest areas. Around the city of Perth and further south there are some areas where the Mediterranean climate is dominated by the coastal location. The GI areas are Central Western Australia ; Eastern Plains ; Inland & North of Western Australia ; Greater Perth : Peel, Perth Hills, Swan District ( Swan Valley ); South West Australia : Blackwood Valley, Geographe. Great Southern (Albany, Denmark, Frankland River, Mount Barker, Porongurup), Manjimup, Margaret River. Pemberton; West Australian South East Coastal : Esperance.
The best-known Australian producers include (some with only more historical significance) Accolade Wines. All Saints. Brand's. Brown Brothers. Coldstream Hills. Glaetzer. Hardy's. Heggie. Hill Smith Estate. Katnook Estate. Lindeman's. Loxton Winery. McWilliams. Mildara. Mitolo. Orlando. Penfolds. Peter Lehmann. Pewsey Vale. Rosemount Estate. Rothbury Estate. Rymill. Seppelt. South Corp. Taltarni. Warburn Estate. Wolf pale (see also under Treasury Wine Estates ) Wynns and Yalumba,