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autochthonous

autoctono (I)
autochtone (F)
autóctono (ES)
autóctone (PO)

The latin / greek term (autós = self, chthón = earth) means "long-established, indigenous, down to earth" and in relation to geology and biology "originated or occurring at the site of discovery" (the opposite is allochthonous, that is, originated elsewhere - not native to the site). A related term is "endemic" (endemic), which means "locally occurring" or "spreading in a particular area" (but not necessarily originated there). The in the description of varieties The commonly used term "autochthonous" means, in the narrow sense, that the vine is cultivated almost exclusively or predominantly in a particular area, where it originated, or at least can look back on a relatively long history and has acquired a certain cultural significance.

A variety is considered autochthonous even if it has been established for a very long time, even if it was introduced and did not originate in the region in question. Many of these aspects apply to the so-called landraces to. In a broader sense, you can also older new varieties consider as indigenous grape varieties. However, not a few grape varieties have been spread all over the world, so that the origin often can not be determined. Therefore today a variety outside its area of ​​origin can be more influential than in the region where it originated autochthonous. The sorts Cabernet Franc. Chardonnay. Merlot and Pinot Noir are autochtonous for certain regions of France, but are now grown worldwide.

Typical Austrian autochthonous varieties, which also have a significance in terms of quantity, are Blue Portuguese. Neuburger. Rotgipfler. St. Laurent. Veltliner (the group), Riesling. Zierfandler and Zweigelt, The Traminer you share, so to speak, with Germany and Alsace. Count in Germany Elbling. feeder. Tauberschwarz and Sylvaner to. In some sources, the Riesling Although this variety is grown worldwide. He is certainly one of them because of his probable descent, history and cultural significance. The Swiss Wallis is home to many of these varieties, for example Amigne. Cornalin. Eyholzer. Himbertscha. Lafnetscha. splashers and Rèze, There are also numerous autochthonous vines in Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain.

Actually, the current frequency of a grape variety in cultivation does not say anything about whether it is autochthonous in the region or not. If a rare grape variety but until today only endemic occurs, that is only in a certain area, for example, on the island Sardinia or on Corsica exists and nowhere else, one can almost certainly assume that it should have originated there autochthonous. Old grape varieties that were widespread in the course of their history were able to survive mutations local and regional Clones form, which are then considered autochthonous for the respective growing areas.

One of the examples is the variety Shiraz in Australia, while comparing the DNA profiles from the French Syrah does not distinguish (and the two are therefore considered the same grape variety), but a few minimum morphological Has differences. In summary, however, there are no scientifically recognized criteria for the definitive definition of the term autochthonous, because there is also no clear knowledge of the origin or the origin of many grape varieties. See also on this topic Old plants and landraces, as well as a complete list of varietal relevant keywords below grapevine,

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