The French breeder Victor Ganzin developed in 1879 by crossing the Aramon Noir with an American wild vine Vitis rupestris a series of hybrids rootstocks, which he shortly after the parents called AxR (Aramon x Rupestris). The most successful of these was the AxR 1 (in France, Australia and New Zealand they are called ARG 1). This was initially very popular in France and overseas because of its vigor and yield. Already in 1903 but was insufficient in France phylloxera resistance as well as short-lived and therefore the use abandoned.
After the Second World War were of the University of California In Davis made extensive field trials to find suitable underlay vines. In the early 1960s, Davis experts finally recommended that the AxR 1 pad be used in offshore winegrowing regions, which was then also used in California was done on a large scale. The experiences and / or warnings from Europe of for example the French oenologist Prof. dr. Denis Boubals (1926-2007) you did not pay attention. The scientist Albert Julius Winkler (1894-1989) and others reasonably justified this decision "that the choice of a base can not be based solely on their resistance to phylloxera" .
The symptoms of phylloxera appeared relatively late in the early 1980s, when numerous pests of California were attacked by the pest. For a long time Davis was not ready to admit the mistake and advised against the AxR 1. It was only in 1989 that the university issued a warning that the AXR 1 was not resistant, but gave as a reason a new variant of the phylloxera on, the "Biotype B". Whether this is true, is unlikely, because with other documents bestockte vineyards were not attacked by the pest.
All vineyards planted with the AxR 1 base had to be cleared, and the total damage was estimated at one billion dollars. One of the vineyards first affected was Martha's Vineyard whose 14 hectares of Cabernet Sauvignon had to be replanted in 1993. In order to minimize the damage, one tries to extend the life of the infested vineyards by disinfectants. It is estimated that around 75% of all Californian vineyards have to be replanted. Not a few wineries were facing financial ruin, in part, this was mitigated by subsidies from the government. As a result, many stocks have been replaced by high quality varieties in a large cleanup operation. See also below finishing,