The French breeder Victor Ganzin developed in 1879 by crossing the Aramon Noir with an American wild vine Vitis rupestris a number of hybrids rootstocks which he named AxR (Aramon x Rupestris) for short. The most successful of these was the AxR 1 (it is called ARG 1 in France, Australia and New Zealand). Initially, this was very popular in France and overseas due to its vigor and profitability. Already in 1903 the insufficient in France phylloxera resistance as well as short lifespan recognized and therefore abandoned the use.
After the Second World War the University of California Extensive field tests were carried out in Davis to find suitable rootstocks. At the beginning of the 1960s, Davis experts finally recommended that the AxR 1 pad be used in coastal wine-growing regions, which was also the case in California took place on a large scale. The experiences or warnings from Europe, for example of the French oenologist Prof. Dr. Denis Boubals (1926-2007) was ignored. The scientist Albert Julius Winkler (1894-1989) and others reasoned this decision accordingly "that the choice of a document cannot be based solely on its resilience to phylloxera" .
The phylloxera symptoms only appeared relatively late in the early 1980s, when numerous pests in California were affected by the pest. For a long time, however, Davis was not ready to admit the error and advise against the AxR 1. It was only in 1989 that the university issued a warning that the AXR 1 was not resistant, but gave a new variant of the as the reason phylloxera the “Biotype B”. Whether this is actually true is rather unlikely, because vine areas planted with other documents were not affected by the pest.
All vineyards planted with the AxR 1 pad had to be cleared, the total damage is estimated at one billion dollars. One of the first affected vineyards was Martha's Vineyard, whose 14 hectares of Cabernet Sauvignon had to be replanted in 1993. In order to keep the damage as low as possible, attempts are made to extend the life of the infected vineyards by means of disinfectants. It is estimated that around 75% of all California vineyards need to be replanted. Quite a few wineries were facing financial ruin, in part this was mitigated by government subsidies. As a result, many stocks were replaced by high-quality varieties in a large cleanup campaign. See also under finishing,