The white grape variety comes from Portugal. Synonyms are Asal, Asal Branco, Azal, Azal da Lixa, Carvalha, Carvalhal, Espinheira, Gadelhudo and Pinheira. It must not be confused with the varieties Amaral (Azal Tinto) or Alvarinho (Azal Blanco) because of common synonyms or morphological similarities. According to DNA analyses, azal is closely related to the Portuguese varieties Arinto, Loureiro and Trajadura. However, the parentage (parenthood) is unknown. The late ripening vine is susceptible to powdery and downy mildew, as well as botrytis. It produces fresh, acidic white wines with aromas of lemon and green apples. The variety is mainly grown in the Beiras, Douro and Rios do Minho and Vinho Verde areas. In 2010, 1,072 hectares of vineyard area were designated with a sharp downward trend (Kym Anderson).