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The historical landscape at the lower course of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the south of today Iraq is regarded as one of the cradles of viticulture and wine culture. Around 4000 BC BC, the area was populated by the Sumerians and was subsequently divided into numerous city states. These were, for example, the cities of Haran, Kush, Ur (after the AT of the Bible the home of Abraham) and Uruk. The latter was dominated by the legendary Sumerian king Gilgamesh probably in the period between 2750 and 2600 BC Under the famous king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) it reached with the capital Babylon the largest extent and covered nearly the entire Mesopotamia, In the 13th century BC BC, Babylonia was attacked Assyria, The city of Babylon was 689 BC. BC destroyed by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (705-681 BC), he made Nineveh the capital. The Babylonian king Nabupolossar (626-605 BC) overthrew the rule of the Assyrians and probably had the tower built at Babel. Under his rule, the neo-Belian Empire was established.

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