The historical landscape on the lower course of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris in the south of today's Iraq is considered one of the cradles of viticulture and wine culture. Around 4000 BC BC the area was settled by the Sumerians and was subsequently divided into numerous city-states. These were, for example, the cities of Haran, Kusch, Ur (after the AT the Bible the home of Abraham) and Uruk. The legendary Sumerian king ruled over the latter Gilgamesh probably between 2750 and 2600 BC. BC Under the famous king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) it reached its greatest extent with the capital Babylon and encompassed almost the whole Mesopotamia, In the 13th century BC BC fell to Babylonia Assyria, The city of Babylon was founded in 689 BC. Completely destroyed by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (705-681 BC), he made Nineveh the capital. The Babylonian king Nabupolossar (626-605 BC) overthrew the rule of the Assyrians and probably had the tower of Babel built. The New Bavarian Empire was founded under his rule.
His son Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC) created a Babylonian empire, probably the famous Hanging Gardens of the Semiramis - one of the ancient seven wonders of the world. This king conquered Egypt, Syria and Palestine, destroyed in 586 BC BC Jerusalem and deported a large part of the Israelites to the so-called Babylonian captivity. In a temple in what is now the ruined city of Babylon, an inscription about Nebuchadnezzar was found, in which wines from eight different regions are mentioned, including a "drink from the mountains". The Greek historian Herodotus (482-425 BC) also visited Babylon on his travels; according to his own account, he still saw the Tower of Babel. He reports that wine was transported to Babylon in palm wood barrels on the Euphrates; the Greeks did not yet know wooden barrels for wine (see also under wine vessels ). In 539 BC Chr. Babylonien was then conquered by the Persian king Cyrus II (died 529 BC) and Persia was incorporated. See also under Ancient wines,