The historical landscape on the lower course of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the south of today Iraq is considered as one of the cradles of winemaking and wine culture. Around 4000 BC The area was populated by the Sumerians in the 3rd century BC and subsequently subdivided into numerous city states. These were, for example, the cities of Haran, Kush, Ur (after the AT of Bible the home of Abraham) and Uruk. The latter was dominated by the legendary Sumerian king Gilgamesh probably in the period between 2750 and 2600 BC Under the famous king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) it reached with the capital Babylon the largest extent and covered nearly the entire Mesopotamia, In the 13th century BC BC, Babylonia was attacked Assyria, The city of Babylon was 689 BC. Destroyed by the Assyrian king Sennacherib (705-681 BC), he made Nineveh the capital. The Babylonian king Nabupolossar (626-605 BC) overthrew the rule of the Assyrians and probably had the tower built at Babel. Under his rule, the neo-Belian Empire was established.
His son Nebuchadnezzar II. (605-562 BC) created a Babylonian Empire, probably under him the famous Hanging Gardens of Semiramis - one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. This king subdued Egypt, Syria and Palestine, destroyed in 586 BC. Jerusalem and deported a large part of the Israelites in the so-called Babylonian captivity. An inscription on Nebuchadnezzar was found in a temple in today's ruined city of Babylon, mentioning wines from eight different regions, including a "drink of the mountains". The Greek historian Herodotus (482-425 BC) also visited Babylon in his travels; according to his own account he still saw the Tower of Babel. He reports that on the Euphrates wine was transported in palm wood barrels to Babylon; At that time the Greeks did not know wood barrels for wine (see also under wine vessels ). In 539 BC Babylon was then conquered by the Persian king Cyrus II (died 529 BC) and Persia incorporated. See also below Ancient wines,