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22.545 Keywords • 49.275 Synonyms • 5.290 Translations • 7.929 Pronunciations • 146.303 Cross-references

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backcross

Retro-crossing (GB)
See below breeding,

Presumably, the old high cultures of the Assyrian. Egyptian. Babylonian. Chinese. Persian. Phoenicians and other peoples with the deliberate breeding of plants and so too varieties on the basis of Wild vines, It has probably been known for a very long time that seeds could be obtained by seed-sowing. Presumably, the Persians and later the Arabs in the early Middle Ages already targeted large-berries table grapes bred, which spread throughout the Mediterranean to Spain (Negrul's Proles orientalis ). The modern breeding as conscious, manually induced crossing of two parents with targeted use of paternal pollen set in Christian Europe probably only with the beginning of botanical systematics, for the Carl von Linné (1707-1778) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) laid the scientific foundations.

New grape varieties through targeted breeding activities such as seed sowing or crossbreeding have emerged from the first third of the 19th century, especially in the hothouses of England. These were, for example, the table grape varieties Foster's White Seedling and Lady Downe's seedling, In the middle of the 19th century, in France, especially in the nurseries of Anger (Loire) also many new varieties such as the Madeleine Royale and Madeleine Angevine, Professionally crossed was then from the second third of the 19th century. A real boom for new varieties of mushroom-resistant hybrid varieties and resistant to rain documents took place in connection with the Reblaus- and Mildew disaster from the 1870s, especially in France, whereby the breeders Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Albert Seibel (1844-1936), as well as the Rebzuchtbetrieb Seyve Villard to emphasize. After the great success of Müller-Thurgau large quantities of new grape varieties were also created in Germany after the First World War. This resulted in varieties like Bacchus. Domina. Dornfelder. dark fields. Huxelrebe. Kerner. Scheurebe. Siegerrebe and many more.

breeding objectives

The general breeding goal in modern viticulture is to produce grape varieties with certain positive, desired characteristics and characteristics. New grape varieties with better or partially completely new properties can only be produced on a generative (sexual) way by crossing breeding : Two grape varieties with desirable parental characteristics are crossed with each other and from the attracted seedlings selected out plants that best correspond to the desired ideal species. In maintenance breeding , already existing varieties with degenerative or viral appearance are improved by selecting the most vigorous, fertile and healthy vines. These healthy and virus-free individual vines are then mass-marketed in a vegetative (asexual) way, while the degenerated, barren vines in the vineyard are eliminated and eliminated by the healthy ones Clones be replaced in top quality ( cloning breeding ).

Once a plant with the desired characteristics has been discovered and selected, the multiplication of this breeding success represented by a single plant can be achieved vegetative propagation over cuttings done in order to nurseries to produce enough clone copies for the tillers of the vineyards. Due to the extremely pronounced heterozygosity (Spalterbigkeit) in the genome of the grapevine split by seed sowing propagated plants again and thus no longer have the selected properties of the mother plant on. Therefore, vegetative propagation is the only way to obtain a selected variety type and to multiply it unchanged (see detailed below) blossom ). For the issue of the plant variety for newly bred grape varieties or selected clones in Europe or the individual countries are the plant variety protection agency established by the EU CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office) or the national authorities. There are essentially four different breeding strategies, some of which are also used in combination. These are crossing, selection or selection, mutation and maintenance breeding.

Crossroads breeding

The new breed new grape varieties by crossing and generative (sexual) propagation of two parent varieties. The already mentioned above heterozygosity of the vine causes the offspring to have other characteristics than the parents. This basically positive phenomenon is called heterosis, As a rule, the...

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