Single-celled microorganisms in ball, stick or screw shape, which are everywhere. Bacteria-like, even tiny microorganisms (without cell walls) are called phytoplasmas designated. Bacteria multiply by division. There are more than 2,000 species, most of which are harmless. Rather, many are making an important contribution to the biological balance in nature, by degrading the dead and decaying living beings to their basic substances. Some are even able to break down environmental toxins such as mineral oil. A targeted fight is carried out by special bactericidal, In the winemaking Bacteria are involved from start to finish, but not always desirable. They are useful in the formation of humus by degradation of organic residues in the vineyard soil and in the photosynthesis in growth. In the must or wine, most species can not survive due to the acidity.
Certain types of Acetobacter (the acetic acid bacteria) are responsible for the conversion of wine into vinegar responsible, whose existence and effect has the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). The Lactic acid bacteria are at the malolactic fermentation involved. However, most bacteria are parasites, which can cause infectious diseases in humans, animals and plants. Not as numerous as the virus Certain species are also the cause of vine diseases such as necrosis (Bacteria necrosis), Flavescence dorée. Mauke and Pierce Disease, The infestation of a vine by certain bacteria can by Indexing be determined. By different bacteria are also some wine faults such as vinegar sting. Mäuseln and Lactic acid sting caused. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis in turn, in viticulture as a biological insecticide used. See also below Vine enemies,