The red grape variety comes from Italy, The name may be derived from "Berberis", an alcoholic drink made from barberry berries with a similarly sour taste. Synonyms are Barbera Amaro, Barbera a Peduncolo Rosso, Barbera a Peduncolo Verde, Barbera a Raspo Rosso, Barbera a Raspo Verde, Barbera Amaro, Barbera Black, Barbera Crna, Barbera d'Asti, Barbera di Piemonte, Barbera Dolce, Barbera Fina, Barbera Forte, Barbera Grossa, Barbera Mercantile, Barbera Nera, Barbera Nera a Caule Rosso, Barbera Nera a Caule Verde, Barbera Noir, Barbera Noire, Barbera Nostrana, Barbera Rotonda, Barbera Vera, Barberone, Blaue Barbera, Gaietto, Nigruia, Lombardesca and Ughetta. Despite apparently suggesting synonyms or morphological No similarities with the varieties Barbera del Sannio. Barbera Sarda (possibly related), Barberùn. mammolo. Neretto Duro (Barbera Rotonda), Perricone or Vespolina (Ughetta) can be confused.
There are some legends surrounding the origin of the surely very old variety. It is said that it was already used by the Lombards in the 7th century Piedmont introduced. In 1255 a document from the municipality of Casale Monferrato mentions a variety "bonis vitibus barbexinis". However, as is often assumed, this is not the Barbera, but probably Berbesino, a synonym for Grignolino, The scholar Petrus de Crescentiis (1230-1320) cited a variety called Grissa in his work published in 1304, which may have been Barbera. And in one ampelography of the Count Giuseppe Nuvolone-Pergamo (President of the Società Agraria di Torino) the Barbera variety is said to have been listed as "Vitis vinifera Montisferratensis" in 1798. However, the actual identity of these three grape varieties is not guaranteed.
As was done in 2003 DNA analysis there are few relationships with other varieties in Piedmont, which could actually indicate a different origin. The ampelograph Pierre Viala (1859-1936) suspected the origin of the vine not in Piedmont, but in the nearby, as early as the 20th century Oltrepò Pavese in the Lombardy, The mystery of the origin and also the parenthood of the variety have not yet been resolved. According to several DNA analyzes, there is no genetic relationship to the two varieties Barbera Bianca and Barbera del Sannio, Barbera is a popular crossbreeding partner, among other things in the nine new varieties Alba Rossa. Cornarea. ervi. Incrocio Terzi 1. Nebbiera. nigra. Prodest. San Michele and soperga,
After Phylloxera disaster The triumphal march of the Barbera began at the beginning of the 20th century, which eventually developed into more than half of the vineyard area in Piedmont to become the “people's grape” and still occupied 50,000 hectares in Italy in the early 1990s. In the mid-1980s, she wrongly came into disrepute as cheap Barbera bulk wines methanol (Methyl alcohol) were transferred, resulting in 30 deaths. Barbera is the most common variety in the world with around 60% Piedmont, but is also in the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna grown. The total Italian acreage is 20,524 hectares.
The late maturing, high-yielding variety produces ruby-red, acid-stressed red wines with gentle tannins and cherry flavor. With a corresponding reduction in yield and recommended barrel expansion, it has good quality and storage potential. Among other things, it is often used as a determining variety in DOC / DOCG wines Bardolino. Barbera d'Alba. Barbera d'Asti. Barbera del Monferrato, Casteggio. Cerveteri. Colline Novaresi. Colli Perugini. Colli Piacentini. Falerno del Massico. gabiano. Garda. Malvasia di Casorzo d'Asti. Molise. Nice. Oltrepò Pavese and Valsusa authorized. It is also used in many Italian IGT wines used.
There are further stocks in Slovenia (134 ha), Greece. Northern Macedonia and Israel, Italian emigrants introduced it to around 1880 California on. Of the former 7,000 hectares, only around 2,500 remain today. In the United States it occupies a total of 2,798 hectares. There are also smaller stocks in Argentina. Australia (116 ha) and South Africa (51 ha). In 2010, the variety occupied a total of 24,178 hectares of vineyards with a strongly decreasing tendency. Compared to 1990 with 67,987 hectares at the time, there was an extreme reduction of around two thirds. It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 36.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)