Sammelbeeteichnung (also fine) for procedures to a young wine to "beautify," "improve," "clean," or " durable " close. Under degumming or. clarify however, the procedures for grape Roger that. In the past, fining was mainly the clarification of a wine after the fermentation meant as well Flugschönung was designated. Today, the term includes many different cellaring measures. By adding substances to the fresh fermented wine by chemical reactions and / or adsorption bound unwanted suspended matter. All these substances are electrically charged. Either negative as yeasts and tannins or positively like proteins and gelatin, The fining agents must be charged oppositely to bind the Trubpartikelchen itself. They are added in dissolved form and form insoluble flakes with the unwanted constituents of wine, which sink to the bottom.
Already the Romans were in the antiquity the effect of whipped egg white in winemaking known. In the Middle Ages there were numerous sometimes questionable procedures (resp. wine adulteration ); For example, a "color and taste improvement" with bovine blood, In the famous classic "Von Baw, Pfleg und Brauch des Wein" by the clergyman Johann, who works in Wien quickly (1540-1612) some techniques are described in detail. Among other things, he explains how to make a dull wine again, namely by adding freshly milked, still cow-warm milk. You already knew that certain substances like isinglass, Gelatine, Spanish earth (kaolin) and coal bind the suspended particles in the wine.
Beautiful beauty ultimately achieves several effects. Above all, the natural discontinuation of sediments significantly accelerated. In addition, substances bound in the wine are removed after the bottling to a cloudiness or negative impact. In addition, by removal of filtration-inhibiting substances, any subsequent filtration facilitated. Finally, by doing so wine faults at best prevented at all or eliminated after occurrence. One can between the three groups physicochemical substances such as proteins. tannins, Crystals ( Weinstein ) and heavy metals, biological substances like yeasts and bacteria and other substances such as dust, filter material and Korkabrieb differ.
Best works fine wines with a high acidity. Optimal for many fining agents is a temperature between 10 and 20 ° Celsius. Under certain circumstances, microscopically minute particles can not be detected by these methods; if necessary, these are subsequently removed by the alternative techniques filtration. flotation or Centrifuge, By racking or transfer to another container, the wine is then separated from the fining strip. The different fining procedures are sometimes also used in combination (see below for the paragraph Combination beauty).
Many producers abstain especially in connection with Organic viticulture or the generation of organic wines on the beautiful and on the filtration of the wines, in order to avoid the inevitable loss of flavor and taste associated with these two processes flavorings to avoid. The fact such unfiltered Wines will be marketed accordingly. Fining residues are partly attributed to the vineyard. Exempted are due to the cyan compounds, the residues from the blue shade. The individual procedures or the most frequently used technical terms are:
Various iron compounds can get into the wine through fittings (not made of stainless steel), pumps and filters and wine defects such as white breakage and Black break cause. By adding yellow Ferrocyanide Copper and iron compounds are converted into an insoluble blue substance that settles to the bottom and is then removed. The method was discovered in 1903 by the German wine chemist Dr. Ing. Wilhelm Möslinger (1856-1930), therefore one called the blue shade also earlier "Möslinger-Schönung". It is thus the wine error Frost taste fought.
The procedure requires approval and may only be carried out by authorized persons, since highly toxic substances such as hydrocyanic acid are formed especially in the presence of acids and when heated. Incorrect use of the serious, harmful wine bitter almonds arise. As an alternative, so-called complexing used.
Probably the oldest fining process is carried out almost exclusively on red wines or very tannin-containing wines in order to reduce the tannin and thus make the wine milder or less harsh. It gets animal protein in the form of egg white admitted, one to three egg whites are enough per hectolitre. The active ingredient is albumin, which forms a fine-grained precipitate with the tannins (a similar effect was previously achieved with bovine blood ). Although protein does not attack the wine, it has a slightly decolouring effect.
Protein whitening is already caused at temperatures of 17 to 20 ° Celsius, which is why this is also referred to as heat transfer and the treatment as heat stabilization. In larger quantities, the wine becomes a veil-like protein haze caused. The content of protein in the wine is determined by a so-called Bentotest. The heat-sensitive (thermolabile) proteins are in white wines by means of bentonite (see there in detail) or when red wine with freshly beaten egg white removed. Also the histamine content in red wine is thus reduced.
A stabilizing effect especially in red wines is targeted by oxidation causes. This pushes the polymerization (Aggregation of substances) and causes the connection of anthocyanins and tannins, A small one oxygen contact is automatically given through the wood pores when maturing in wooden barrels. A targeted metered ventilation is through micro-oxygenation reached. By the addition oenological tannins the polymerization is accelerated and promotes the formation of stable color pigments. The best results are achieved immediately after the malolactic fermentation or at the beginning of the wood barrel construction.
By too many dyes (so-called Hochfärbigkeit ) and tannins can make a wine look bitter and scratchy. In contrast, protein-containing substances (see Eiklarschönung) and PVPP (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) used.
Refreshing old and tired wines with one Alterston and also the elimination of minor odor and taste defects. It will be a fresh one lees (immediately after the end of fermentation) used.
The procedure (also Weinstein stabilization) takes place before the bottling to excess Weinstein precipitate. The wine is cooled for a few days to a week at about minus 4 degrees Celsius. This is done by various methods such as room cooling, in tanks with cooling brine, cooling coils or flow cooler. The tartar crystals precipitate quickly and sink to the bottom. Possibly. has to have another one later filtration respectively.
Will be in the must as well as in the wine activated carbon performed to eliminate color, smell or taste flaws. The very old procedure is a proven remedy against numerous wine faults, Coal has an extreme surface activity, already one gram of activated carbon has an adsorption surface of up to 1,500 m². However, the quality can also be adversely affected because excessive addition removes odors, flavors and colors to a considerable extent. Therefore, a precisely limited and targeted dosage is required. The powder is stirred into the wine, the settling takes a long time.
The mode of action of fining agents can be real chemical compounds or else colloid-chemical Be kind, in which negative and positively charged substances bind to each other. Increasingly, such substances are used in combination. Very good results bring mixtures of casein and PVPP, as well as from gelatin and silica sol, Depending on the desired effect, the order of addition to the wine is important: Silica sol (1) and gelatine (2) cause a pure clarification, but on the other hand a tannin correction and a clarification.
This is the oldest form of clarification. in which without any action is simply waited for settling the Trubteilchen. This works well with acidic wines, but can take up to several months. When making red wines, tannins react with the dissolved protein and precipitate it. The self-clarification must not with the degumming of the freshly pressed must.
A comprehensive list of possible fining agents are available at Means in winemaking, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,