Collective watering (also fine) for procedures to a young wine to "beautify", "improve", "clean" or " durable " close. Under degumming respectively. clarify however, the procedures for grape Roger that. In the past, the clarification of the turbidity of a wine after the fermentation meant the also as Flugschönung was designated. Today, the term encompasses many different cellar measures. By adding substances to the freshly fermented wine, chemical reactions and / or adsorption unwanted suspended matter bound. All of these substances are electrically charged. Either negative like yeasts and tannins or positive like proteins and gelatin, The fining agents must be charged in opposite directions in order to bind the turbid particles to themselves. They are added in dissolved form and, with the undesirable wine ingredients, form insoluble flakes that sink to the bottom.
The Romans were already in the antiquity the effects of whipped egg whites in wine making are known. In the Middle Ages there were numerous, sometimes questionable procedures (or wine adulteration ); for example a "color and taste improvement" bovine blood, In the famous classic "Von Baw, Pfleg und Brauch des Wein" by the clergyman Johann, who works in Wien quickly (1540-1612) some techniques are described in detail. Among other things, he explains how to get a cloudy wine right again, namely by adding freshly milked milk that is still warm to the cow. You also knew that certain substances like isinglass, Gelatin, Spanish earth (kaolin earth) and coal bind the suspended particles in the wine.
By beautifying, several effects are ultimately achieved. Above all, the natural weaning of sediments significantly accelerated. Furthermore, substances bound in the wine are removed, which after the bottling to a cloudiness or negative impairment. In addition, by removing filtration-inhibiting substances, a subsequent one, if necessary filtration facilitated. Eventually this will wine faults at best prevented at all or eliminated after an occurrence. You can like physico-chemical substances between the three groups proteins. tannins, Crystals ( Weinstein ) and heavy metals, biological substances like yeasts and bacteria and other substances such as dust, filter material and cork abrasion.
It works best with wines with a high acidity. A temperature between 10 and 20 ° Celsius is ideal for many fining agents. Under these circumstances, microscopic particles may not be detected using these methods; these may be removed subsequently using the alternative techniques filtration. flotation or Centrifuge, By racking or pouring it into another container, the wine is then separated from the fining. The various fining processes are sometimes also used in combination (see also below in the section Combination Finishing).
Many producers especially waive in connection with Organic viticulture or the generation of organic wines on the beautiful and also on the filtration of the wines in order to avoid the loss of taste and flavor that is inevitably associated with these two processes flavorings to avoid. The fact of such unfiltered Wine is marketed accordingly. Finishing residues are partly returned to the vineyard. Due to the cyan compounds, the residues from the blue finish are excluded. The individual processes or the most frequently used technical terms are:
Various iron connections can get into the wine through fittings, pumps and filters (not made of stainless steel) and wine defects such as white breakage and Black break cause. By adding yellow Ferrocyanide copper and iron compounds are converted into an insoluble, blue substance that settles on the bottom and is then removed. The process was discovered in 1903 by the German wine chemist Dr. Wilhelm Möslinger (1856-1930), which is why the blue color used to be called "Möslinger color". It also becomes the wine error Frost taste fought.
The process is subject to approval and may only be carried out by authorized persons, as highly toxic substances such as hydrocyanic acid are formed especially in the presence of acids and when heated. Improper use can lead to serious, harmful wine defects bitter almonds arise. As an alternative, so-called complexing used.
Probably the oldest fining process is carried out almost exclusively on red wines or wines with a high tannin content in order to reduce the tannin and thus make the wine milder or less rough. It is animal protein in the form of egg white Admittedly, one to three chicken eggs per hectolitre are sufficient. The active substance is albumin, which forms a fine-grained precipitate with the tannins (a similar effect was previously achieved with bovine blood ). Protein does not attack the wine, but has a decolouring effect.
Protein turbidity is already caused at temperatures from 17 to 20 ° Celsius, which is why this is also referred to as heat turbidity and the treatment as heat stabilization. In larger quantities, the wine becomes veil-like protein haze caused. The content of protein in wine is determined by a so-called bento test. The heat-sensitive (thermolabile) protein substances are used in white wines bentonite (see there in detail) or removed from red wine with freshly beaten egg white. Also the histamine content in red wine is thus reduced.
A stabilizing effect, especially with red wines, is achieved through targeted oxidation causes. This bumps into the polymerization (Agglomeration of substances) and causes the connection of anthocyanins and tannins, A little oxygen contact is automatically given by the wooden pores when maturing in wooden barrels. Targeted ventilation is ensured by micro-oxygenation reached. By the addition oenological tannins the polymerization is accelerated and the formation of stable color pigments is promoted. The best results are achieved immediately after the biological acid degradation or at the beginning of the wooden barrel expansion.
Due to too many dyes (so-called Hochfärbigkeit ) and tannins can make a wine bitter and scratchy. In contrast, protein-containing substances (see egg whitening) and PVPP (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone) used.
Refreshing old and tired wines with one Alterston and also the removal of minor smell and taste defects. It will be a fresh one lees (immediately after the end of fermentation).
The process (also Weinstein stabilization) takes place before bottling to excess Weinstein precipitate. The wine is cooled to around minus 4 ° Celsius for a few days to a week. This is done by various methods such as room cooling, in tanks with cooling brine, cooling spirals or continuous coolers. The Weinstein crystals quickly fall out and sink to the bottom. Possibly. must have another afterwards filtration respectively.
Comes with both in the must and in the wine activated carbon carried out to eliminate color, smell or taste errors. The very old procedure is a tried and tested remedy against numerous wine faults, Coal has an extreme surface activity, even one gram of activated carbon has an adsorption area of up to 1,500 m². However, the quality can also be negatively influenced because if too much is added, odors, flavors and colorants are drastically removed. Therefore a precisely limited and targeted dosage is required. The powder is stirred into the wine, it takes a long time to settle.
The mode of action of fining agents can be real chemical compounds or colloid-chemical Be the kind in which negatively and positively charged substances bind together. Such substances are increasingly used in combination. Mixtures of casein and PVPP, as well as from gelatin and silica sol, Depending on the desired effect, the order of addition to the wine is important: silica sol (1) and gelatin (2) purely clarify, but vice versa correct the tannin and clarify it.
It is the oldest form of wine clarification. in which one simply waits for the sediment particles to settle without any action. This works especially well with acidic wines, but it can take up to several months. When making red wine, tannins react with the dissolved protein and precipitate it. The self-clarification must not be with degumming of the freshly pressed must.
There is a comprehensive list of possible fining agents at Means in winemaking, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,