The Catholic order with the well-known “ora et labora” (pray and work) and black cowls was founded by Benedict of Nursia (480-542), who was later canonized, around 529, which was the first monastery (which was badly destroyed in the Second World War) ) Montecassino in the southern Italian region Lazio, In the order rule he wrote above the Weingenuss analogously: "Taking into account weaker brothers, we believe that one hemina (about 0.27 l) a day is sufficient. But those to whom God has given the gift of abstinence may know that their special reward awaits. If, however, the circumstances indicate that the measure mentioned is not possible, but much less or nothing, we warn that the brothers may complain about grumbling ” (see many other statements about wine below Quotes ).
The order also provided the first monk as pope, this was Gregory the Great (540-604). The Benedictines developed into the most important order of the Middle Ages and, with numerous branches, played a major role in missionary and cultural development in Europe, especially in agriculture and viticulture. The Benedictine monastery led by nuns also stood out, for example that of the famous mystic and abbess Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) founded Rupertsberg Monastery Bingen-Bingerbrück in today's German growing region Near, The Benedictines counted alongside those that emerged from them in the 11th century as a reform movement Cistercians and the Carthusians to the greatest vineyard owners of the Middle Ages. Their vineyards were in world-famous wine-growing areas.
In the reign Charlemagne (742-814) a number of large monasteries were founded, including the later canonized Boniface (672-754) Fritzlar, Fulda and Lorsch. In the 10th century the Abbaye Saint-Michel de Gaillac was used by monks in today's appellation Gaillac founded in southwestern France and there revived the viticulture. Around 1100 they founded a monastery on what was later named Johannisberg in the Rheingau. As a result, they planted extensive vineyards on the Rhine, Franconia, Alsace and Switzerland. In Austria the Melk Abbey was founded by the Order Wachau (976) and Göttweig in the Kremstal (1072) was founded and here, too, the viticulture was significantly influenced. In 1098, as a reform movement of the Order Cistercian which continued the viticulture tradition on a large scale.
The Benedictine Abbey of Cluny near Mâcon in 910 Burgundy belonged to most of Gevrey-Chambertin with around 500 hectares. The Saint-Vivant abbey had vineyards in the village Vosne-Romanée (today with a famous winery Domaine de la Romanée-Conti ). On the Loire there were possessions in today's areas Anjou. Bourgueil and Saint-Pourçain and on the Rhone in the fields Cornas and Saint-Péray,
In the Champagne A total of six monasteries were founded, the best known of which is probably the Saint Pierre d'Hautvillers Abbey, in which the famous Dom Pierre Pérignon worked. Today's counted in Bordeaux Château Carbonnieux (Graves) to the possessions. The St. Maximin monastery in the city of Trier had 74 vineyards along the three rivers Moselle, Saar and Ruwer. In 1695, Abbot Wittmann had 100,000 Riesling vines planted. There is the winery there today Maximin Grünhaus - Winery of the von Schubert family,
In 1716 the Princely Fulda Abbey, the dilapidated Benedictine monastery Johannisberg (growing area Rheingau ) bought with all the vineyards and today's Johannisberg Castle built. The famous story of Spätlesereiter and based on this the "invention" of late harvest. By the way, the Prince Abbot of Fulda ordered a little later, all red grape varieties and the white ones Elbling to tear out and replace it with the so far regarded “lesson”. Thus, the Benedictines were also decisive in the spread of the grape variety Riesling involved. With around 12,000 members, the Benedictines are still one of the most influential orders of the Roman Catholic Church.
Göttweig: Von Arcomonte26 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 at , Link
Saint-Michel de Gaillac: By Xabi Rome-Hérault, CC BY 3.0 , link
St. Pierre d'Hautvillers: From October Ends - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Melk: By user: MatthiasKabel - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link