Designation for animal organisms or even microorganisms, which among other things live from pests of the vine (see under Vine enemies ) whose population regulate and keep to a limited extent. They are in the two groups of predators (insects that eat other insects) and parasites distinguished. The latter can also insects that use other hosts, but also micro-organisms such as nematodes. bacteria (for example Bacillus thuringiensis ) mushrooms, Protozoa (single-celled animals) and virus be. In the predatory insects, a distinction is made in so-called protective robbers, which are present even before infestation of a pest in sufficient numbers and prevent colonization by pests from the outset (for example predatory mites and spiders), as well as so-called purge predators, which migrate only after an infestation of pests and then rid the host plant of the pests (for example, lacewings and ladybugs).
The useful predators or parasites include, for example, the insects lacewing. gall midge (only certain species), ladybug (Ball weevil), earwig. ichneumon fly (Weevils, only certain species), predatory mite and assassin bug, The bees Of course, due to the fertilization of the vine (where they play only a minor role), of course, also to the beneficials, but to a lesser extent they can like the wasps even be pests. Of the star can also occur as a beneficial insect (insect), as well as a pest (berry feeding). Insect beneficials are also bred in the laboratory and then targeted against pests as an alternative to insecticides used. They are an effective measure in the biological or. Integrated pest management,