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Bible (GB)

Canaan (biblical name for Palestine), called the "Promised Land", had to be Israelites conquer or colonize twice. This took place under Abraham, the progenitor of Israel (and by the way also the Arabs) around 2000 to 1900 and under Moses after forty years of wandering the desert around 1300 to 1200 BC Chr. History research does not agree on whether the two people actually lived or are just legendary figures. In any case, Moses died after reaching the goal without having entered it. At the border, Moses received an order from Yahweh to have the country of Canaan, which he intended for the Israelites, be scouted. There they came to a wadi (wild brook valley) near Hebron. This is stated in the book Numbers as follows (13.22 ff): It was just the time of the first grapes. When they reached the Eschkol valley, they cut off a vine with a bunch of grapes, which they carried in pairs on a pole, along with some pomegranates and figs. The grape (Hebrew Eschkol = grape) must have been huge.

Bible - Moses with bid panels and giant grape from the Eschkoltal (Numbers 13.22)

Wine in the Bible

Wine is a common topic in the Bible. Vineyard occurs over 90 times, vine over 60 times and wine press 15 times. According to the Bible researcher Jürgen Becker, a total of 979 positions refer directly or indirectly to wine. For comparison, this applies to Homer (8th century BC) Works Iliad and Odyssey only 49 and 85 times, respectively. Even though beer was also a widely used drink at the time, it did not have the same status. Martin Luther (1483-1546) said: Beer is man-made, but wine is from God . Bible researchers found eight different Hebrew words that were translated as "wine" in different languages. Not in all cases it is real wine, but partly syrup, rather beer-like or other alcoholic beverages from different tree and field fruits. The following names occur over 200 times:

  • Ásis = sweeter or Vintage wine
  • Chemer = stronger red wine, mixed with water
  • Mimsák = mixed or spicy wine ( spiced wine )
  • Shékár = strong drink made from barley, honey or dates
  • Shemárim = old wine
  • Sob'e = strong, intoxicating drink, mixed with water
  • Tirósh = young wine
  • Yáyin (Jájin) = general term for Wine

Bible - Altar with open Bible / chalice with host, grape and bread

Viticulture and wine enjoyment among the Israelites

How important viticulture was for the Israelite community is illustrated by several statements in the book Deuteronomy. This is a collection of sermon-like speeches and laws that Moses announced to the Israelites before entering Canaan. Regarding participation in an upcoming battle (June 20), he says: Who is the man who planted a vineyard and has not yet used it? He opens up and returns to his house so that he doesn't die in battle and another man uses him. So the winegrower was up to Virgin Reading exempted from military service and that was after all a period of three to five years. Securing viticulture was more important to the Israelites than one more man in battle.

There were guidelines for grape consumption in the vineyard (23.35): If you come into your neighbor's vineyard, you can eat grapes as much as you like, you are full; but you must not put anything in your vessel . And the time after the harvest was also regulated (24.21-22): If you keep grapes in your vineyard, you should not go on afterwards; the stranger, the orphan and the widow are to fall to them. In the book Leviticus 19.10 the topic is also dealt with: you should not keep a glimpse of your vineyard or pick up the fallen berries. Leave them to the poor and the stranger.

Judaism affirms frugality and detracts from all prankiness, but accepts all corporeality as God-given. So also the (moderate) wine enjoyment as an expression of happiness and zest for life. Wine is not only allowed, it delights the heart of man and fills life with delight. Playing on the holy Sabbath kosher wine an important ritual role. A warning is given against excessive enjoyment, for example the chemer: this should be drunk mixed with water, because undiluted it messes up the head and brain . But just as often, wine and vine are praised and called God's gifts.

Old testament

In the Old Testament, wine or vine is often used in the form of parables, quotes, and aphorisms. In the book Jesus Sirach 9.8 and 9.9 there is a strong warning against becoming weak due to excessive wine consumption in a married woman: the beauty of a woman has made many people crazy and like a fire kindled their passion. Do not sit together with a wife and do not lie intoxicated at the table with her, so that you do not have a heart for her and you perish in your passion.

The Revelation Tent was the focus of Israelite worship during the Israelite exodus from Egypt. It was a portable temple that could be dismantled and reassembled. The children of Israel used a revelation tent until they built the temple of Solomon. In this tent, wine consumption was forbidden if death threatened, which is as follows in the book Leviticus 10.8 and 10.9: Yahweh said to Aaron: You and your sons must not drink wine and intoxicating drink if you go into the revelation tent. Otherwise you have to die. This is a rule that applies to all ages from gender to gender.

Bible - Noah's Ark (Genesis Chapters 6 through 9)

The vines of Noah's ark must have included vines without a doubt, although they are not explicitly mentioned. Because after landing on the mountain Ararat (in the west of today Turkey on the border to Armenia ) survived the deluge and left the animals on land, he becomes a winegrower. The book of Genesis 9.21 reports: Noah, the farmer , started planting the vine. When he drank from the wine (Yáyin), he was intoxicated and lay bared inside his tent. When his son Ham saw his father's nakedness, he did not cover it, but brought his two brothers Sem and Japhpeth over there, laughed and scoffed at it. These then covered up the father. The incident is also interpreted as the "second great fall after Adam and Eve". But this does not mean Noah's enjoyment of wine (this will be forgiven him), but the behavior of Ham. Pope Julius II (1443-1513) ordered Michelangelo to paint the "misconduct" on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

Bible - Drunkenness of Noah (Michelangelo) - Sistine Chapel

In Genesis 49.11, on the deathbed, Patriarch Jacob calls his twelve sons (the twelve tribes of Israel), gives them his blessing, and has a message for everyone about what to expect. To his son Judah he says: He ties his fill to the vine and the donkey boy to the vine. He washes his robe in wine, his dress in the blood of the vines. His eyes are cloudy with wine, his teeth white as milk. In the book of Deuteronium (5th book of Moses, 7.13) wine is counted among the seven blessed fruits that the Jews receive if they abide strictly by the laws of God: He (Yahweh) will bless the fruit of your body, the yield of your field , your grain, wine and oil, as well as the young cattle of your cows and the growth of your small cattle.

The meaning of grapevine is illustrated by the prohibition in the 5th book of Moses 22.9, which is also one of the rules of manufacture kosher wine is: You should not plant your vineyard with two things, so that the sanctuary does not lose everything: the seed that you have sown and the yield of the vineyard . In the book of Jeremiah 2.20 and 2.21, Yahweh railes against the people of Israel who have fallen away from him and compares this as follows: You practice fornication on all high hills and under all green trees. But I had planted you as a noble vine, as a real cutting. How did you transform into a wildling, you degenerate vine?

New Testament

There are also many in the New Testament Quotes or parables related to wine. One of the best known is the saying of Jesus in the Gospel of John (15.1). The parable begins with a metaphorical self-comparison: I am the real vine and my father the vineyard. It is subsequently interpreted that any vine that does not produce good fruit is removed. Those vines that bear fruit are cleaned to give them more fruit. Then the picture is explicitly extended to the disciples who are asked to stay in Christ and to bear fruit there. Just as a single vine is unable to bear fruit on its own, just as the disciples are unable to bear fruit on its own: I am the vine, you are the vine. Whoever stays in me and I in him bears much fruit; because without me you can do nothing.

Bible New Testament - I am the vine and wedding of Cana (Joh. Evanelium)

Other examples are the workers in the vineyard (Matthew 20.1), the evil winemakers (Matthew 21.33) and the well-known miracle at the wedding of Cana (John 2.6), in which Jesus miraculously turns water in six stone jugs into wine. A passage from the Gospel of Matthew 9.16 to 9.17 has become the frequently used saying. To the question of the Johannis disciples : Why do we and the Pharisees fast, but your disciples do not fast? Jesus replied with the parable: Nobody puts a patch of unwashed cloth on an old dress. Because the patch rips off the dress, and the tear gets worse. Nor do you pour new wine into old ones hoses , Otherwise the hoses will tear, the wine will spill, and the hoses will spoil. Instead, new wine is poured into new bottles. Then both are preserved.

further information

In the German state of Saxony-Anhalt there is a special monument in a vineyard near Großjena Stone picture book Depicts scenes from the Bible related to viticulture and wine enjoyment. In Christianity, the mystical connection between wine and God took place in the context of Eucharist, their central expression in the transformation of bread and wine into Christ's body and blood. See also on the subject under the keywords alcohol ban. Bauernregeln. church. chalice. altar wine. wine gods and wine Saints,

Moses: From Jusepe de Ribera - Link
Bible: by Tscharlie from Pixabay
Chalice : by aalmeidah from Pixabay
Noah's Ark: By Edward Hicks, public domain, link
Noah drunkenness: sacerdos viennensis
Jesus: From anonimous, public domain, link
Wedding of Cana: By Giotto di Bondone , public domain, link

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