The Kanaan (Biblical name for Palestine), called the "Promised Land," had to be replaced by the Israelites conquer or colonize twice. This was done under Abraham, the progenitor of Israel (and by the way also the Arab) about 2000 to 1900 and under Moses after forty years of desert migration about 1300 to 1200 BC. The historical research is not in agreement whether the two persons actually lived, or are rather only legendary figures. In any case, Moses died after reaching the destination without entering it. At the frontier, Moses was commanded by Yahweh to seek out the land of Canaan which he intended for the Israelites. There they came near Hebron to a wadi (Wildbachtal). This is in the book Numbers as follows (13:22 ff): It was just the time of the first grapes. When they reached the valley of Eshkol, they cut off a vine with a bunch of grapes, which they carried by two on a pole, as well as some pomegranates and figs. The grape (Hebrew Eschkol = grape) must therefore have had huge proportions.
Wine is a common topic in the Bible. Vineyard occurs over 90 times, vine over 60 times and wine press 15 times. According to the Bible researcher Jürgen Becker, reference is made to wine in a total of 979 places, directly or indirectly. For comparison, this is true for Homer (8th century BC) Works Iliad and Odyssey only 49 or 85 times too. Even though beer It was not a common drink at the time, it did not have the same value. Martin Luther (1483-1546) said: Beer is human, but wine is from God . Bible Students found eight different Hebrew words translated "wine" in different languages. Not in all cases it is true wine, but partly syrup, beer-like or other alcoholic drinks from various tree and field fruits. The following names occur over 200 times:
How important viticulture was for the Israelite community is illustrated by several statements in Deuteronomy. This is a collection of preaching-type speeches and laws that Moses announced to the Israelites before entering the land of Canaan. Regarding participation in an upcoming battle (20.6) he says: Who is the man who planted a vineyard and has not yet used it? He gets up and returns to his house so he does not die in battle and another man uses him. The winemaker was up to the Virgin Reading exempted from military service and that was after all a period of three to five years. For the Israelites, safeguarding viticulture was more important than a man more in battle.
There were requirements for grape consumption in the vineyard (23.35): If you come into the vineyard of your neighbor, you may eat grapes as much as you like, you are full; but you must not put anything into your vessel . And also the time after the harvest was regulated (24.21-22): If you keep reading in your vineyard, then you should not afterwards keep reading; she should fall to the stranger, the orphan and the widow. In the book Leviticus 19.10 the topic is also discussed: Also in your vineyard, you should not keep any gleanings and do not pick up the fallen berries. Leave them to the poor and the stranger.
Although Judaism affirms contentment and forbids every pretzel, it rejects all corporeality as God-given. So also the (moderate) wine enjoyment as an expression of cheerfulness and joy of life. The wine is not only allowed, but it pleases the heart of man and fulfills life with delight. At the sacred Sabbath plays kosher wine a significant ritual role. Excessive enjoyment is warned, for example, before the Chemer: This should be drunk mixed with water, because undiluted he brings head and brain together . But just as often, wine and vine are praised and called God's gifts.
In the Old Testament, wine or grapevine is often used in the form of parables, quotations and aphorisms. In the book of Jesus Sirach 9.8 and 9.9, there is a strong warning against being weakened by over-indulging a married woman: By the beauty of a woman, many have already become astray, and like a fire, passion burns on her. With a wife, do not sit together and be drunk with her to the table, so that you do not bow to her heart and you perish in your passion.
The tabernacle was the center of Israelite worship during the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. It was a portable temple that could be disassembled and reassembled. The children of Israel used a tabernacle until they built the Temple of Solomon. In this tent wine drinking was forbidden at death threat, which is as follows in the book Leviticus 10.8 and 10.9: Yahweh said to Aaron thus: You and your sons, wine and intoxicating drink you may not drink, if you go into the revelation tent. Otherwise you have to die. This is a rule that applies to all ages from generation to generation.
The cargo of Noah's Ark must have undoubtedly heard of vines, although they are not explicitly mentioned. Because after landing with the mountain Ararat (in the west of today Turkey on the border to Armenia ) survived the deluge and left the animals on land, he becomes a winegrower. The book Genesis 9:21 reports: Noah, the farmer , began planting the grapevine. When he drank of wine (Yayin), he became intoxicated and lay bared inside his tent. When his son Ham saw the nakedness of his father, he did not cover her, but brought in his two brothers Sem and Japhpeth, laughed and mocked about it. These then first covered the father. The incident is also interpreted as the "second great fall after Adam and Eve". But that does not mean the wine-tasting of Noah (that will be forgiven him), but the behavior of Ham. Pope Julius II (1443-1513) ordered Michelangelo to paint the "misconduct" on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
In the Book of Genesis 49.11, on the deathbed, Patriarch Jacob calls his twelve sons (the twelve tribes of Israel) to him, giving them his blessing, and has a message for everyone what to expect. To his son Judah he says: He binds his fillings to the vine and the boy of a donkey to the vine. He washes his robe in wine, his dress in the blood of the vine. His eyes are dark as wine, his teeth white as milk. In the book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy, 7.13), wine is counted among the seven blessed fruits that the Jews receive, if they strictly abide by the laws of God: He (Yahweh) will bless the fruit of your womb, the yield of your field , your grain, wine and oil, as well as the cattle of your cows and the growth of your small cattle.
The meaning of grapevine is clarified by the ban in the 5th book of Moses 22.9, which is also one of the rules for the production kosher wine is: You should not plant your vineyard with two things, so that the whole thing does not fall into the sanctuary: the seed that you sowed, and the yield of the vineyard . In the book of Jeremiah 2.20 and 2.21, Yahweh raves on the people of Israel that have fallen away from him, and compares this as follows: On all the high hills and among all the green trees, did you commit fornication. But I had planted you as a noble vine, as a real cutlery. How did you turn into a wildling, you degenerate vine?
There are many in the New Testament as well Quotes or parables relating to wine. Among the best known is the saying of Jesus in the Gospel of John (15.1). The parable begins with a metaphorical self-comparison: I am the true vine and my father the husbandman. As a result, it is interpreted that any vine that does not bear good fruit is removed. Those vines that produce fruit are cleansed to bring more fruit. Then the image is explicitly extended to the disciples, who are called upon to remain in Christ and bear fruit there. Just as a single vine is incapable of fruiting itself, so are the disciples unable to fruit themselves out: I am the vine, you are the vine. Whoever stays in me and I in him, brings much fruit; because without me you can not do anything.
Other examples include the workers in the vineyard (Matthew 20.1), the wicked winegrowers (Matthew 21.33), and the well-known miracle at the wedding of Canaan (John 2.6), in which Jesus miraculously turns water into wine in six stone jars. The commonly used proverb has become a passage from the Gospel of Matthew, 9.16 through 9.17. To the question of the disciples of the Johannis: Why are we fasting and the Pharisees, but your disciples are not fasting? Jesus answered with the parable: No one puts a patch of unfashionable cloth on an old dress. Because the patch tears off the dress, and the crack gets worse. Also, do not pour new wine into old tubes. Otherwise the hoses will rupture, the wine will be spilled and the hoses will be spoiled. But new wine is poured into new tubes. Then both stay.
In Christianity found the mystical connection of wine to God in the context of Eucharist in the conversion of bread and wine into Christ's body and blood, its central expression. See also below church,