Also known as organic-dynamic viticulture production form for the production of grapes and Wine (Principles and general information are under Organic viticulture whose study is also recommended as an introduction to the complex topic). She goes to the Austrian anthroposophist Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) back. He studied mathematics, natural sciences, philosophy, literature and history in Wien . In the 1920s, Steiner introduced rules for "biodynamic agriculture" for the flourishing of agriculture and propagated these through numerous lectures. The core message of his philosophy is that the disease of a plant is the sign of a naturally disturbed balance and on the use of chemical aids in the fertilization is due. Initially, biodynamics developed in agriculture and horticulture, viniculture came later.
In the biodynamically oriented viticulture different measures of the Biological crop protection or. Integrated pest management applied in very strict form. The entire ecosystem and their natural resources are spared and the life processes are specifically promoted in the interaction of earthly and cosmic forces. The main focus is on the work in the vineyard. The pruning Fertilizing, weeding and even harvesting are based on a sowing calendar. The soil should be plowed at least once a year, if possible with a team of horses and not with a tractor. He is with compost to revitalize and treat with minerals, making it back to the habitat more diverse microorganisms with natural balance. The biodiversity (Conservation of biodiversity) and sustainability play a major role.
In addition to the methods of organic viticulture is to strengthen the natural forces of the grapevine and to activate the life processes in the soil the use of special means prescribed. A central role as fertilizer is played by the horn of cattle, which is used in conjunction with other substances such as cow manure or fumed silica in lowest, homeopathic doses (only a few grams / hectare). It will Plant strengtheners used with resistance-promoting action against harmful organisms. For example, infusions of herbs or dried herbs are very beneficial to the vine. Nettle provide balance and harmony in the vineyard. There are always cosmic forces like that moon phases and also to consider other star constellations. Specifically, however, those of the moon significantly influence the development of terrestrial plants, according to the theory of biodynamics.
The Swiss journalist Andreas Heller in the NZZ-Folio (Journal of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung) has clearly described the effect of biodynamics: Just on the day of autumn equinox began on the wine-growing farm of the Cruchon family in Echichens near Morges (area La Côte in the canton Vaud ) a new epoch. Michel Cruchon filled six cow horns with cow dung and buried them in the soil of his best vineyard. Six months, until the vernal equinox next spring, he let the horns rest in the ground, and when he dug them out again, the cow dung was so sharp that Cruchon wanted to throw the horns away in a high arc. But he did as his tutor and adviser, François Bouchet, had told him: he dissolved the manure in lukewarm water and stirred the broth in a round container, first clockwise, until a vortex arose, then against it, twenty minutes long.
Then he filled it into a spray ampoule to distribute the liquid drop by drop over the vineyard, in the late afternoon, when the ground is already feeling the fading of the sun. Only 120 grams of this "energized" cow manure, he had been told, would be enough to positively stimulate the root growth of the vines on one hectare. The Kuhhorndung is just one of many preparations of biodynamic viticulture that Cruchon has been using for some time now. Quartz dust, which was buried in the ground in a cow horn over the summer and is then dissolved in dynamized water, is said to be from a concentration of four grams per hectare of the vine leaves in the photosynthesis support and provide for a deeper color of the wine. Infusions of herbs do the vine only good. Nettles, for example, provide balance and harmony throughout the vineyard.
How is this extraordinary phenomenon explained? I am not a Esoteriker, clarifies Michel Cruchon: I have learned my craft from scratch. I can tell you how pesticides work. Biodynamics, however, has primarily astonished me. Not everything is explainable by a long shot. But the results are clear . Cruchon shows a traditionally managed vineyard. The soil is bare, the vines are high, rich in fleshy leaves, hung with thick grapes. Right next to it a few rows of vines maintained by a new method. The soil is overgrown with grasses and herbs, the vines are gnarled, the foliage and fruit light and plump. Twice the same plant, two conceptions of agriculture: there the monoculture trimmed to yield, here the useful plant, embedded in its natural environment. And the wines are correspondingly different.
The conventional products are light and rather non-binding, the biodynamic multi-layered, vigorous and concentrated. They are wines with strong terroir, Also carried out were "sensitive crystallizations", with which Biodynamiker check the vitality of a plant. A mixture of the vegetable juice (in this case wine) and a copper chloride solution is placed in a Petri dish and the result of the crystallization is awaited. When the vitality of the product is extinguished, the copper chloride solution dries out leaving an amorphous (formless) stain. However, if the analysis material has its full vitality, the living forces arrange the copper chloride into a structure reminiscent of frost flowers. The biodynamic wine shows an increased vitality, its crystallization is finer and lasts up to five days, while conventional wine begins to disintegrate before.
As an absolute guru and pioneer of Biodynamic viticulture is the French Loire winemaker Nicolas Joly with his winery Château de la Roche-aux-Moines and the famous single location Coulée-de-Serrant, He founded the BioWinzerverein La Renaissance of the Appellations, He accidentally read Steiner's writings and from the mid-1980s he systematically changed his business. In 1997, he published the book "Le vin - du ciel à la terre" (Hall wine publishing house) over his experiences, and thus initiated a worldwide movement in modern viticulture, which now also the wine regions of the New world has reached. He writes:
Modern agriculture, which is increasingly geared exclusively to quantitative and commercial aspects, leads to a dead end. It destroys the soil, it nourishes the food, kills the variety and the taste. The paradox of modern agriculture and science is that although you know a great deal but have barely understood how it all relates to each other .
The oldest globally active Biodynamic Organic Association is the one founded in 1924 DEMETER, Well-known producers are the wineries Chapoutier (Rhône) Christmann Arnold (Pfalz), Colomé (Argentina), Dirler-Cadé (Alsace), Didier Dagueneau (Loire) Domaine Gauby (Roussillon), Domaine Leroy and Domaine de la Romanée-Conti (Burgundy), Dr. Bürklin-Wolf (Pfalz), Ellwanger Jürgen (Württemberg), Fetzer with Bonterra (California), Bold Peter Jakob (Rheingau) Meinklang - Winery Michlits. Nikolaihof. Weninger Franz and Wimmer-Czerny (Austria) as well as Wittmann Philipp (Rhine Hesse). Other associations are BIODYVIN and respectful-BIODYN,
As a further development of Biodynamic viticulture is sometimes the similarly oriented, practiced on the basis of individual methods such as for the purpose of increasing quality music PA in the vineyard and cellar, however, also not uncontroversial Bioenergetic viticulture designated. However, both forms of production are often summarized and considered as a single entity in many sources. The third (second) scientifically undisputed form of production is the Organic (Ecological) Viticulture,