Also known as biodynamic viticulture for the production of grapes and Wine (Principles and general information are at Organic viticulture described, whose study is also recommended as an introduction to the complex topic). It goes to the Austrian anthroposophist Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) back. He studied mathematics, science, philosophy, literature and history in Wien . In the 1920s, Steiner established rules for "biodynamic agriculture" for the prosperity of agriculture and propagated them through numerous lectures. The core message of his philosophy is that the disease of a plant is a sign of a naturally disturbed balance and the use of chemical aids in the fertilization is due. First, biodynamics developed in agriculture and horticulture, viniculture came later.
Various measures of the Biological crop protection respectively. Integrated crop protection applied in a very strict form. The entire ecosystem and their natural resources are conserved and the life processes in the interaction of earthly and cosmic forces are specifically promoted. The main focus is on the work in the vineyard. The pruning, fertilizing, weeding and harvesting are based on a sowing calendar. The soil should be plowed at least once a year, if possible with a team of horses and not with a tractor. He is with compost to revitalize and treat it with minerals so that it returns to the habitat more diverse microorganisms with natural balance. The biodiversity (Conservation of biodiversity) and sustainability play a major role.
In addition to the methods of organic viticulture, the natural forces are strengthened grapevine and the use of special means to activate the life processes in the soil. The horn of cattle plays a central role as fertilizer, which is used in conjunction with other substances such as cow manure or quartz dust in the smallest, homeopathic doses (only a few grams / hectare). It will Plant strengtheners used to promote resistance to harmful organisms. For example, infusions of herbs or dried herbs are very positive for the vine. Stinging nettles ensure balance and harmony in the vineyard. There are always cosmic powers like that moon phases and also to consider other constellations of the stars. But especially those of the moon have a significant influence on the development of earthly plants according to the theory of biodynamics.
The Swiss journalist Andreas Heller in the NZZ-Folio (magazine of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung) vividly described the effect of biodynamics: Just on the day of the autumnal equinox, the Cruchon family's vineyard in Echichens near Morges (area La Côte in the canton) Vaud ) a new era. Michel Cruchon filled six cow horns with cow dung and buried them in the soil of his best vineyard. He left the horns in the ground for six months until the equinox the following spring, and when he dug them out again, the cow dung smelled so strongly that Cruchon wanted to throw the horns away. But he did as instructed by his teacher, François Bouchet, to dissolve the manure in the lukewarm water and stir the broth in a round container, first clockwise until a vortex developed, then against it for 20 minutes.
Then the liquid was sprayed in droplets over the vineyard, in the late afternoon when the sun disappeared. Just 120 grams of this "dynamic" cow dung, he had been told, would be enough to stimulate the root growth of the vines on a hectare. The cow horn is just one of many biodynamic vitamins that Cruchon has been using for some time. Quartz dust, which was buried in the ground in a cow horn over the summer and then dissolved in dynamic water, is said to be used in the vine leaves at a concentration of just four grams per hectare photosynthesis support and ensure a deeper color of the wine. Infusions of herbs are also good for the vine. For example, nettles ensure balance and harmony throughout the vineyard.
How can this unusual phenomenon be explained? I am not a Esoteriker, Michel Cruchon clarifies: I learned my craft from scratch. I can tell you how pesticides work. Biodynamics, however, taught me amazement above all. Not everything can be explained. But the results are clear . Cruchon shows a traditionally managed vineyard. The ground is bare, the vines are tall, rich in fleshy leaves and covered with thick grapes. Next to it a few rows of vines cultivated using the new method. The ground is overgrown with grasses and herbs, the vines are gnarled, the foliage and the fruits are small and plump. Twice the same plant, two concepts of agriculture: there the monoculture tailored to yield, here the useful plant, embedded in its natural environment. And the wines are correspondingly different.
The conventional products are light and non-binding, the biodynamic multi-layered, powerful and concentrated. They are wines with strong terroir, “Sensitive crystallizations” were also carried out, with which biodynamics test the vitality of a plant. A mixture of the plant sap (in this case wine) and a copper chloride solution is placed in a petri dish and the result of the crystallization is awaited. When the vitality of the product has gone out, the copper chloride solution dries out and leaves an amorphous (shapeless) stain. However, if the analysis material has its full vitality, the living forces arrange the copper chloride into a structure that is reminiscent of ice flowers. The biodynamic wine shows increased vitality, its crystallization is finer and lasts up to five days, while conventional wine begins to disintegrate beforehand.
The French Loire winemaker Nicolas is considered the absolute guru and pioneer of biodynamic viticulture Joly with his winery Château de la Roche-aux-Moines and the famous single location Coulée-de-Serrant, He founded the organic wine association La Renaissance des Appellations, By chance he got to read Steiner's writings and changed his business consistently from the mid-1980s. In 1997 he published the book "Le vin - du ciel à la terre" (Inspired Wine, Hallwag Verlag) about his experiences, and thus initiated a worldwide movement in modern viticulture, which now also covers the wine regions of the New world has reached. He writes:
Modern agriculture, which is increasingly based exclusively on quantitative and commercial aspects, leads to a dead end. It destroys the soil, poisons food, kills diversity and taste. The paradox of modern agriculture and science is that although you know a lot, you have hardly understood how it all relates .
The oldest global biodynamics association is the one founded in 1924 DEMETER, Well-known producers are the wineries Chapoutier (Rhône) Christmann Arnold (Pfalz), Colomé (Argentina), Dirler-Cadé (Alsace), Didier Dagueneau (Loire) Domaine Gauby (Roussillon), Domaine Leroy and Domaine de la Romanée-Conti (Burgundy), Dr. Bürklin-Wolf (Pfalz), Ellwanger Jürgen (Württemberg), Fetzer with Bonterra (California), Bold Peter Jakob (Rheingau) Meinklang - Michlits winery. Nikolaihof. Weninger Franz and Wimmer-Czerny (Austria) as well Wittmann Philipp (Rhine Hesse). Other associations are BIODYVIN and respectful-BIODYN,
As a further development of biodynamic viticulture, the similarly oriented one is sometimes practiced on the basis of individual methods, for example to increase quality music PA in the vineyard and cellar, however, also not uncontroversial Bioenergetic viticulture designated. Both forms of production are often summarized in many sources and viewed as a unit. The third (second) scientifically undisputed form of production is the Organic (ecological) viticulture,