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amargo (ES)
amer (F)
amaro (I)
bitter, galling (GB)
amargo (PO)

One of the six taste sensations (Next greasy. salty. angry. sweet. umami ), which is perceived in the rear portion of the tongue over a large area (colloquially becomes in the context of a wine description also hantig used). The taste buds for bitter are many thousands of times more sensitive than those for sweet. This was especially important in the primitive times of mankind to be able to perceive poisonous substances, which usually taste bitter, very quickly.

Tongue with the tastes and receptors
Picture left (edited): Copyright: Peter Hermes Furian
Picture right (edited): By NEUROtiker - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link

Bitterness may not be with the mainly of tannins caused astringent Effect are confused, but often occurs together with this. In the wine is for the bitter effect, especially the tannin-like catechin responsible. Bitter substances are to a greater extent in aloe, artichokes, cinchona, Hops, almonds, nutshells and orange peel. There are many with it flavored alcoholic drinks such as among others Bitter Vino. Chinato. wormwood and many others.

Bitter feelings develop slowly, but they ring in the mouth for a very long time and are therefore in the mouth leaving to feel. Bitterness can be almost completely masked by sweetness, through acid their hardness is increased. The sensation is also from the wine temperature dependent and is amplified at low temperature. As part of a wine address Although bitter is a rather negative description, it does not have to mean a mistake. This occurs especially in young red wines, but is usually reduced in the aging or. bottle aging, For certain wines, such as wormwood, but this is desirable. Bitterness can also be due to insufficiently deposited Oak wood, by unripe grapes or bitter rot caused. By improper or uncontrolled winemaking may be defects or wine defects bitter almonds (at the blue shade) and bitter (in the malolactic fermentation ) arise.

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