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amargo (ES)
amer (F)
amaro (I)
bitter, galling (GB)
amargo (PO)

One of the six taste sensations (Next greasy. salty. angry. sweet. umami ), which is perceived extensively in the rear section of the tongue (colloquial is also used in connection with a wine description hantig used). The taste buds for bitter are thousands of times more sensitive than those for sweet. This was vital to survival, especially in the primeval times of mankind, in order to be able to perceive toxic substances, which mostly also taste bitter, very quickly.

Tongue with the flavors and receptors
Left picture (edited): Copyright: Peter Hermes Furian
Right picture (edited): Von NEUROtiker - Own work , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link

Bitterness must not be with that mainly of tannins caused astringent Effect can be confused, but often occurs together with this. For the bitter effect in wine, the tannin-like is above all catechin responsible. Bitter substances are found in aloe, artichokes, cinchona, Hops, almonds, nutshells and orange peel available. There are many with it flavored alcoholic beverages such as among others Bitter Vino. Chinato. wormwood and many others.

Bitter sensations develop slowly, but remain in the mouth for a long time and are therefore in the leaving to feel. Bitterness can be almost completely masked by sweetness acid their hardness is increased. The sensation is also from the wine temperature dependent and is amplified at low temperature. As part of a wine address Although bitter is a rather negative description, it does not have to mean a mistake. This occurs above all in young red wines, but usually moderates in the aging respectively. bottle aging, With certain wines, such as wormwood, this is desirable. Bitterness can also be caused by insufficiently deposited Oak wood, by unripe grapes or bitter rot caused. By improper or uncontrolled winemaking can defects or the wine defects bitter almonds (with the blue enhancement) and bitter (in the malolactic fermentation ) arise.

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