This worldwide disease of the vine belongs to the group of Yellowing disease because, among other things, the leaves discolour in the course of the disease. Particularly vulnerable are young vine plants in warm vineyards. Cause phytoplasmas (bacteria-like microorganisms) of the Stolbur type (hence Stolbur's disease) produced by Cicada species while sucking the phloem in the Xylem be transmitted. The main transmitter is the glasswing hyacinth Hyalesthes obsoletus. Between the end of June and the beginning of August, the adult insects come to the surface, where the females lay the eggs at the root neck of the host plant after mating. Among the most common host plants count bindweed, Nettle and dandelion, from which the phytoplasmas can be transferred from the cicadas to nearby vines.
On the vine the cicadas come only by chance, therefore spreads the disease in viticulture only slowly and limited. From the middle of July, the leaves begin to turn white, in the white varieties yellow, red in the red varieties. The leaves roll down from the edge and take on a metallic sheen. In older leaves, band-shaped discolorations develop along the veins, whereby also necrosis can form. The shoots are covered in the internodes with black pustules and turn purple. Characteristic is that the shoots incomplete mature or lignified and the immature parts at frost turn black from the top in winter and then die off. This is also the name derives from.
At an early stage the bones dry up before the blossom, The berries mature retarded, become bitter and dry out. Over the years, this can be limited to a few shoots of a vine, in the rare extreme case, it comes to complete dying. The pathogens (cicadas) can be hard to fight because they live underground most of the time. Most effective is the removal of the main host plants near the vineyards. Particularly vulnerable Blaufränkisch. Chardonnay. Dornfelder. Kerner. Pinot Blanc. Pinot Noir. Riesling and Scheurebe, Less vulnerable Cabernet Sauvignon. Green Valtellina. Merlot. Schiava Grossa and Riesling, A particular type of yellowing with similar causes and effects is the again occurring more often Flavescence dorée (Golden yellow yellowing). See also below Vine enemies,