The last step of the winemaking, Legal requirements must be met in good time beforehand, i.e. the submission for the official test number (Germany) or state test number (Austria). From this point on, various changes may no longer be made. The wine must be chemically and physically stable, which is achieved through various measures (see also under beautiful ). This happens a long time before bottling sulphurize to a oxidation to prevent in the bottle. To check protein stability, a sample is heated to over 70 ° Celsius for two to three hours and then to one protein haze controlled. A Weinstein stability is achieved by adding metatartaric reached.
In the picture a compact filling system from the Italian filling machine manufacturer GAI. It consists of the components bottle ejector, venting station, drop pressure filler, gas injector and closure station (optional for cork or screw cap ) with a capacity of up to 2,400 bottles per hour (1.5 seconds per bottle). In the video (click to view) the filling line of the winery Scheiblhofer (Andau, wine-growing region Lake Neusiedl in the Burgenland ) from filling over labeling shown in boxes until packaging. At the bottom is the bottling line of the agricultural technical school Krems for viticulture and fruit growing in Lower Austria to see.
When used bottles thorough cleaning, disinfection and sterilization is an essential prerequisite against harmful microorganisms how Acetobacter (Acetic acid bacteria), yeasts or molds, For sterilization ozone. peroxyacetic. sulfur dioxide or hydrogen peroxide used. The filling date must be chosen so that the wine in the bottle reaches its peak. For fruity white wines, this is already one to three months after fermentation. At in Barrique aged top red wines can be many years to decades. The has an important influence on the type of bottle filling shutter in terms of the difference between Leeraumgröße in the bottleneck and the oxygen supply. Because there is no 100% tight closure. The ratio of the permeability of screw cap and cork (Natural cork) is 1 to 3 or 4. There are already alternative ones closures with controlled oxygen supply such as B. Nomacorc and VinPerfect, This is called nanooxygenation (see under micro-oxygenation ).
The amount of oxygen intake through the closure is related to the question of whether and how much oxygen for the bottle aging is required. Especially with red wines, a constant supply with regard to flavorings and colour be positive. In addition, however, the possible amount of air in the bottle neck must also be taken into account, that with filling inert gas or does not apply to vacuuming. A wine with air in the bottle neck with 100 mg / l sulphurous acid added, this means 40 to 50 mg / l free sulfurous acid. With 15 or 20 milliliters of air, the free sulphurous acid is reduced to around 20 mg / l within the first three months after filling, i.e. by around half. That means faster ripening and therefore shorter durability of the wine. The oxygen absorption can also be influenced by the filling process. In the case of filling machines with a short tube, the wine runs down the inner wall and absorbs more oxygen. With a long tube, however, the bottle is filled from the bottom up and absorbs less oxygen.
According to the filling technology, a distinction is made between level (height), negative pressure, normal pressure and, especially for carbon dioxide-rich products, counterpressure fillers. A further distinction is made between cold sterile and hot filling (hot filling). Cold-sterile bottling is generally used for white wines and red wines that can be stored. All parts of the filling system must be sterilized beforehand with hot water or steam. Bottling at wine temperatures around 15 ° Celsius keep the loss of carbon dioxide low. Hot bottling takes place with simpler red wines. These are refreshed beforehand with carbon dioxide. Then the wine is heated to 60 to 65 ° Celsius and filled into the bottle; from 13% vol alcohol content 55 ° Celsius are sufficient. All microorganisms are killed by the warm alcohol. It is important to cool down quickly to below 40 ° Celsius Kochton to prevent. The wines are ready to drink faster, aging but faster. An alternative is pasteurization,
Depending on filling technology and Lock (Cork, screw cap, glass cork, etc.) results, as already mentioned, in the volume between the liquid and the cap, and whether or how much oxygen in this whitespace is included. With hot filling, depending on the alcohol content, the thermal expansion for 0.75 liters of wine is 10 to 13 milliliters, while cooling there is a corresponding volume reduction. When it cools down, a vacuum forms, the empty space is filled with carbon dioxide from the wine. In the case of cold filling, air displacement is by means of inert gas advisable, since the approximately 15 milliliters of air contain 4.2 milligrams of oxygen. Furthermore, the displacement of the air by dry ice or the sealing under vacuum is used. Leaky closures lead to the enrichment of the empty space with oxygen and less through evaporation of wine filling level what is going through oxidative Processes definitely has a negative impact.
With regard to the decisions for the optimal closure and the treatment of the empty space, the storage capacity of the wines must be taken into account. Most wines are drunk today within the first one to two years - in Germany and Austria this is well over 90%. It is therefore much more important whether the empty space has been rendered inert or vacuumized than controlling the influence of oxygen via the choice of closure. Because the effect that the different oxygen passage of the individual types of closures would only become noticeable after a storage period that most of the wines do not reach.
Not infrequently occurs after bottling filling shock on. It arises during the filling process due to mechanical stress on the wine and access to oxygen. After closing (corking) the process of bottle aging that can take years to decades. The last step before the sale or marketing is the adjustment, i.e. the attachment of label, Bottles capsule, any awards and statutory features such as one banderole, According to EU Regulation must be on the bottle (label, foil or bottle itself) when it is brought into the EU market batch identification be included. The bottler must appear on the label; see also under Erzeugerabfüllung,
Pictures and video: Kraft GmbH