The ancient civilizations of the Assyrian. Egyptian. Babylonian. Chinese. Persian. Phoenicians and other peoples with the conscious breeding of plants and thus also varieties on the basis of Wild vines, It has long been known that new varieties could be obtained from seed sowing. Probably the Persians and later the Arabs already had large berries in the early Middle Ages table grapes bred that spread throughout the Mediterranean to Spain (Negrul's Proles orientalis ). Modern breeding as deliberate, manually induced crossing Two parent varieties with the targeted use of paternal pollen only started in Christian Europe with the beginning of the botanical system, for which Carl von Linné (1707-1778) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) laid the scientific foundations.
From the first third of the 19th century, new grape varieties through targeted breeding activities such as seed sowing or crossings emerged, particularly in the greenhouses of England. These were, for example, the table grape varieties Foster's White Seedling and Lady Downe's Seedling, In the middle of the 19th century, many new varieties such as that emerged in France, especially in the nursery of Anger (Loire) Madeleine Royale and Madeleine Angevine, Crossbreeding was then carried out professionally from the second third of the 19th century. A real boom for new varieties of mushroom-proof hybrid varieties and phylloxera resistant documents took place in connection with the Reblaus- and Mildew disaster from the 1870s especially in France, with the breeders Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Albert Seibel (1844-1936), as well as the vine farm Seyve Villard are to be emphasized. After the great success of the Müller-Thurgau Large quantities of new grape varieties were also created in Germany after the First World War. This led to varieties like Bacchus. Domina. Dornfelder. dark fields. Huxelrebe. Kerner. Scheurebe. Siegerrebe and many more.
The general breeding goal in modern viticulture is to produce grape varieties with certain positive, desired properties and characteristics. New grape varieties with better or sometimes completely new properties can only be produced in a generative (gender-specific) way by cross breeding : Two grape varieties with desired parental characteristics are crossed with each other and from the attracted seedlings selected plants that best match the desired ideal variety. In maintenance breeding , existing varieties with degenerative or viral appearances are improved by selecting the vigorous, most fertile and healthiest vines. These healthy and virus-free individual vines are then mass-propagated in a vegetative (asexual) way, while the degenerated, sterile vines in the vineyard are eliminated and by the reproduced healthy ones Clones to be replaced in top quality ( cloning ).
Once a plant with the desired properties has been discovered and selected, the reproduction of this breeding success represented by only one plant can be achieved vegetative propagation about cuttings to be done in nurseries generate enough clone copies for planting the vineyards. Due to the extremely pronounced heterozygosity (Splitting inheritance) in the species genome of the grapevine re-split plants that have been seeded again and thus no longer have the selected properties of the mother plant. That is why vegetative propagation is the only way to obtain a selected type of variety and multiply it unchanged (see detailed information under blossom ). For issuing the plant variety for newly cultivated grape varieties or selected clones in Europe or the individual countries are the plant variety protection agency established by the EU CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office) or the national authorities. There are essentially four different breeding strategies, some of which can also be used in combination. These are cross-breeding, selection or selection, mutation and maintenance breeding.
The new breed new grape varieties by crossing and generative (sexual) propagation of two parent varieties. The heterozygosity of the vine mentioned above means that the offspring also have different properties than the parents. This basically positive phenomenon is called heterosis, As a rule, the parents are different varieties, which prevents negative inbreeding effects. The seeds intended for sowing ripen in the berries of the mother variety (this is always the first mentioned variety in the family tree). The father variety provides the pollen for the fertilization of the egg cells and ovules (by special DNA analyzes, by the way, the crossing direction be determined). The aim is to select those plants from the offspring that best express the desired characteristics or ideally combine the special advantages of the two parent grape varieties. For example, frequent breeding goals are higher Mostgewicht, later expulsion, earlier Maturity date, Looseness, greater resistance to climatic conditions such as frost. drought and water stress, such as resistance against various fungal diseases such as Botrytis and both mildews,
Is crossed with two grape varieties of the same species as for example the European one Vitis vinifera, one speaks of an intraspecific (intrinsic) crossing. But it is two different species, for example Vitis vinifera with Vitis labrusca, one speaks of one Interspecific crossing, In this case the result of the crossing is called hybrid (Hybrid). All types of the subgenus Vitis can be crossed with each other and the offspring are based on the same DNA structure (n = 19) reproductive. Crosses of those belonging to the subgenus Muscadinia Vitis rotundifolia (n = 20) with species of the subgenus Vitis (n = 19) are difficult because of the incompatible chromosome sets (2n = 38 +1) and only possible if second ones are used as mother. But even then there are often sterile, malformed specimens without fruit set among such offspring, which makes breeding lines with Muscadinia genome difficult or even impossible.
When crossing, shortly before the start of the blossom the hermaphrodite single flowers of the vine intended as mother are castrated. Of one or more of his Gescheine all (not yet dropped) flower covers are removed with tweezers and the dust bags with the pollen sacks and pollen grains (male gametes) contained therein are plucked off by hand. This leaves only the bare ovaries with the female scars. Then the banknotes treated in this way are covered with bags to make a spontaneous Self- or pollination excluded by early pollen. When the flower has started, the previously harvested pollen of the father variety is sprinkled into the bags. Then the bag is shaken so that the pollen grains flying around can stick to the scar. The bags remain put over the appearance until the fruit begins to form. The seeds of the berries that develop from them are subjected to a stratification phase (cold treatment) that lasts several weeks and then germinate on a seed bed. Since all seeds never germinate, several hundred seeds are always placed in the soil.
The 200 to 400 used seedlings From the first generation of intersections are referred to in technical terms as F1, which means 1st generation of branches or subsidiaries. As a rule, these do not yet show the desired properties to a satisfactory extent, so that some of the promising candidates are selected from this F1 seedling population in order to carry out further crossings. To improve the properties, backcrossing is often carried out with a parent selected for very good wine quality. By crossing and selecting several times in the F2 or F3 generation, one can ultimately eliminate undesirable or negative properties (displacement crossing) or select new positive properties, maintain existing ones or strengthen their characteristics. The latter is called transgression when the performance of the parent varieties (e.g. early maturity, nutmeg taste) is exceeded by the daughter varieties. The opposite is a regression , that is, the regression of positive properties. In addition to crossing and sowing, a selection from seedlings must also be carried out continuously.
For the new breeding of modern fungus-resistant varieties, interspecific crossings (species of the European Vitis vinifera with American or Asian species) are carried out in order to cross the mildew resistance of the American vines, which is not found in European vines, in Vitis vinifera varieties while maintaining the high wine quality. Unfortunately, with these interspecific crosses, the unwanted cross is also inherited Foxton the American vines very easily, which can be tasted even in the smallest concentrations. Therefore, repeated back and crossings have to be carried out in order to re-approach European quality standards while maintaining the highest possible resistance to fungi. For approval reasons, the end product should no longer have any typical hybrid characteristics. These are continuous tendrils, a closed shoot tip or a higher content of the dye Malvidine-Diglucoside, Ideally, one tries to breed Vitis vinifera varieties with a crossed-in resistance gene complex, with the fungus resistance weakening more and more with each back-crossing with Vitis vinifera varieties.
The pedigree of the newly created and selected variety seedling at the end of the crossing process is represented by a breeding scheme (pedigree) in order to be able to understand the complicated and interwoven crossing steps. However, the end result - the new variety - is far from being suitable for cultivation in practice, but a decades-long, very complex and laborious evaluation procedure follows until the new grape variety can be approved. The vines have been tested for decades at several locations and their properties continuously checked until they are certified after passing and passing the test variety protection receive. After cultivation tests have been carried out in the countries and regions, the regional or national classification and approval for commercial cultivation takes place, which are initially limited to certain wine-growing regions and can last for many years. Not all varieties pass these tough long tests and quite a few have to be withdrawn.
This oldest breeding method has been used by humans for millennia. In the process, conspicuous vine plants with interesting properties were cultivated and vegetatively propagated using cuttings. In today's Georgia grape seeds from cultivated vines were found, which between 5,000 and 7,000 BC. Be dated. Probably not yet targeted pollination, however sowing vine seeds may have been an early and widespread method to get out of the germinated seedlings Select grape varieties with new properties. Certainly, seedlings have always sprouted spontaneously. Grape varieties with hermaphrodite flowers were preferred because they did not have to be pollinated and guaranteed a safe yield. A distinction is made between massive selection and cloning selection.
With the massive selection (also field selection, French selection massale; massale = mass), certain are determined vines with desired positive properties like Maturity date, Grape shape (e.g. loose- ) or resistance (e.g. frost. drought ) selected in a vineyard for the purpose of reproduction. This can also be several (many) vines in this vineyard. From the selected vines, brushwood is cut and matched documents grafted. It then replaces dead, sick or other vines in the vineyard. In this way you can gradually renew a vineyard.
In contrast, a single vine (mother vine) is selected in the clone breeding, which in one nursery then vegetatively propagated and is used in many vineyards. This form is used when a completely new vineyard is to be created and is widely used today. The vines in a vineyard are then genetically 100% dental, so to speak Clones, Critics of this form complain about the resulting loss of genetic diversity in such monocultures. That becomes one by using different clones vine taken into account in a vineyard.
artificial mutations can be deliberately caused by ionic or radioactive radiation or biochemical treatment of cell cultures, callus tissues, seeds, pollen grains, buds and cuttings or other parts of the vine that can be regenerated. It is often isolated plant tissues that undergo special treatment in the laboratory. Then you regenerate new plants from the tissues, which are evaluated for their changed properties. Treating with colchicine (toxic ingredient from autumn timeless seeds) can, for example, produce plants with tetrapolide (4n = 76) sets of chromosomes, which are more profitable but also more susceptible to environmental stress. However, these procedures mostly mean manipulative genetic engineering and are still very controversial.
In the vineyard can be spontaneous and accidental mutations in buds or cell lines morphological outgrown shoots grow out of which by vegetative propagation new grape variety clones can be branched off again. The variety complexes of very old varieties such as are particularly well known for this Pinot. Traminer. Chasseals or muscatel, These have numerous mutation-related and somatic variants chimeric produced that can be distinguished visually or in terms of taste and, at higher cost, usually also genotypically (clone variants). Such naturally occurring mutants are selected visually by clone selection and by vegetative propagation as a “fake” variety with its own name or as a new one clone preserved and reproduced. In this case, natural processes of nature are used.
In addition to the new breeding and selection of new grape varieties from seedlings or the selection more visually striking Klonmutanten the less spectacular conservation breeding plays an important role in practice. Each vine has its specific life story, in which it capers for climates, the attacks of numerous Vine enemies, as well as numerous mechanical interventions. There is also a variety-specific aging process that leads to a reduction in the body's defenses and infections virus. bacteria or mushrooms favored. All of this leads to a slow but steady decline in performance (degeneration), the breakdown of the root mycorrhizal (Plant-fungus symbiosis) and increasing vine fatigue,
The production and vigor of the old vines in many old plants around the turn of the century was therefore very impaired. In order to improve the yields of the vineyards again, some vine experts such as Gustav Adolf started Froelich (1847-1912) from the end of the 19th century with the positive selection of vigorous, healthy and productive, as well as additionally flower-proof and not to Verrieseln tending vines. First it was Silva heritage items, other varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir ( Pinot Noir ). The "best" vines in the vineyards were selected according to visual criteria, marked and propagated through cuttings. These primary clones were planted in special plants for further observation under uniform growth conditions.
From this, the standardized procedure of single-level selection has developed over time. The quality of the primary clones in the experimental vineyard is recorded and rated (rated) over a period of five years. A single stick that has received the best rating five times (5 points) is then called “elite stick” and is increased. Today, such a floor must also meet the criterion of being virus-free, which is why standardized ELISA tests are available for testing for vine-specific virus types. From this elite stick one produces by finishing ten grafted vines, which are observed and tested again for five years (intermediate test). If this test was positive in all respects (yield security, flowering strength, yield level, wine quality etc.), the main test is carried out with at least 100 sticks. This extends over five years with the respective statistical evaluation. If these selected vines have received a positive evaluation in all disciplines, then this selected material clone named and receives an approval number.
These yield clones, which are positively selected according to health and yield criteria, mostly hardly differ from one another in terms of their morphological Characteristics, but mainly in properties that can only be recorded statistically over the years, such as a somewhat different flowering strength, the number of grapes on the vine, the average grape size, or the density of berries. Growth characteristics such as upright or lateral growth, the time of budding, the duration of the ripening period, the time of the end of vegetation, the maturation of wood and other quantitative, seasonally influenced characteristics are taken into account. The test procedure until clone approval takes 15 to 20 years. All clones must be tested and virus free.
Like one new breed the tested clones must be approved by official bodies. With the approval, the breeder undertakes to look after the clone until it is deregistered and to guarantee the maintenance of clone health and specific cloning properties. Only then will new clones be added to the list of varieties with certified clone material. Now they are allowed in commercial nurseries are vegetatively propagated, where they are bought by the winemaker and planted in the vineyards. In order to maintain the good properties of these plants, constant observation, virus and nematode control and, if necessary, positive selection in the clone nurseries must be carried out.
Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)