Presumably, the old high cultures of the Assyrian. Egyptian. Babylonian. Chinese. Persian. Phoenicians and other peoples with the deliberate breeding of plants and so too varieties on the basis of Wild vines, It has probably been known for a long time that seed varieties could be used to grow new varieties. Presumably, the Persians and later the Arabs in the early Middle Ages already targeted large-berries table grapes bred, which spread throughout the Mediterranean to Spain (Negrul's Proles orientalis ). The modern breeding as a conscious, manually induced crossing The use of paternal pollen by two parents in Christian Europe presumably began only with the beginning of botanical systematics, for which Carl von Linné (1707-1778) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) laid the scientific foundations.
New grape varieties through targeted breeding activities such as seed sowing or crossbreeding have emerged from the first third of the 19th century, especially in the hothouses of England. These were, for example, the table grape varieties Foster's White Seedling and Lady Downe's seedling, In the middle of the 19th century, in France, especially in the nurseries of Anger (Loire) also many new varieties such as the Madeleine Royale and Madeleine Angevine, Professionally crossed was then from the second third of the 19th century. A real boom for new varieties of mushroom-resistant hybrid varieties and resistant to rain documents took place in connection with the Reblaus- and Mildew disaster from the 1870s, especially in France, whereby the breeders Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Albert Seibel (1844-1936), as well as the Rebsuchtbetrieb Seyve Villard to emphasize. After the great success of Müller-Thurgau large quantities of new grape varieties were also created in Germany after the First World War. This resulted in varieties like Bacchus. Domina. Dornfelder. dark fields. Huxelrebe. Kerner. Scheurebe. Siegerrebe and many more.
The general breeding goal in modern viticulture is to produce grape varieties with certain positive, desired characteristics and characteristics. New grape varieties with better or partially completely new properties can only be produced by a generative (sexual) route through crossbreeding : two grape varieties with desirable parental characteristics are crossed with each other and from the attracted seedlings selected out plants that best correspond to the desired ideal species. In conservation breeding , pre-existing varieties with degenerative or viral appearances are improved by selecting the most vigorous, fertile and healthy vines. These healthy and virus-free individual vines are then massively reproduced in a vegetative (asexual) way, while the degenerated, infertile vines in the vineyard are eliminated and eliminated by the healthy ones Clones be replaced in top quality ( cloning breeding ).
Once a plant with the desired characteristics has been discovered and selected, the multiplication of this breeding success represented by a single plant can be achieved vegetative propagation above cuttings done in order to nurseries make enough clone copies for the tillering of the vineyards. Due to the extremely pronounced heterozygosity (Spalterbigkeit) in the genome of the grapevine split by seed sowing propagated plants again and thus no longer have the selected properties of the mother plant on. Therefore, vegetative propagation is the only way to obtain a selected variety type and to multiply it unchanged (see detailed below) blossom ). For the issue of the plant variety for newly bred grape varieties or selected clones in Europe or the individual countries are the plant variety protection agency established by the EU CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office) or the national authorities. There are essentially four different breeding strategies, some of which are also used in combination. These are crossing, selection or selection, mutation and maintenance breeding.
The new breed new grape varieties by crossing and generative (sexual) propagation of two parent varieties. The already mentioned above heterozygosity of the vine causes the offspring to have other characteristics than the parents. This principally positive phenomenon is called heterosis, As a rule, the parents are different varieties, thus avoiding negative inbreeding effects. In the berries of the mother variety (this is always the first-mentioned variety in the pedigree) ripen seeds intended for sowing. The parent variety supplies the pollen for the fertilization of the egg cells and ovules (by special DNA analyzes, by the way, the crossing direction be determined). The aim is to select from the progeny such plants that best express the desired characteristics or ideally combine the particular advantages of the two parent grape varieties. Frequent breeding goals are higher, for example Mostgewicht, later expulsion, earlier Maturity date, Slippery, more resistant to climatic conditions such as frost. drought and water stress, such as resistance against various fungal diseases like Botrytis and both mildews,
If the crossing occurs with two grape varieties of the same species as the European Vitis vinifera, one speaks of an intraspecific (intraspecies) crossing. If it concerns however two different species, for example Vitis vinifera with Vitis labrusca, one speaks of one Interspecific intersection, In this case, one calls the crossing result hybrid (Hybrid). All species of the subgenus Vitis are intercrossable and the offspring are due to the same DNA structure (n = 19) reproducible. Crosses belonging to the subgenus Muscadinia Vitis rotundifolia (n = 20) with species of the subgenus Vitis (n = 19) are difficult because of the incompatible chromosome sets (2n = 38 +1) and only possible if second ones are used as mother. But even then, among such offspring are often sterile, malformed specimens without Fruchtansatz what make breeding lines with Muscadinia genome difficult to even impossible.
When crossing must be just before the start of the blossom castration of his hermaphroditic flowers takes place in the parent plant. Of one or more of his Gescheine All (not yet discarded) flower envelopes are removed with tweezers and the dust bags with the pollen bags and pollen grains contained therein (male gametes) plucked by hand. Thus, only the bald ovaries with the female scars remain. Then the so-treated batches are covered with bags to a spontaneous Even- or pollination to exclude by early pollen. When the flower has set in, the previously harvested pollen of the father's species are drizzled into the bags. Then the bag is shaken so that the flying pollen grains can stick to the scar. The bags remain slipped until the beginning Fruchtbildung over the Gescheinpt. The seeds of the resulting berries are subjected to several weeks of stratification (cold treatment) and then germinated on a seedbed. Since all seeds never germinate, several hundred nuclei are always inserted into the soil.
The 200 to 400 used seedlings from the first generation of intersections, technical terms are referred to as F1, which means 1st branch or subsidiary generation. These usually do not yet show the desired properties to a satisfactory extent, so that from this F1 seedling population some of the promising candidates are selected in order to carry out further crossbreeding. In order to improve the properties, backcrossing is often carried out with a parent selected for very good wine quality. By repeatedly crossing and selecting in the F2 or F3 generation, one can ultimately eliminate undesired or negative properties (crowding junction) or select new positive properties, preserve existing ones or enhance their expression. The latter is called transgression , when the performance of the parent varieties (for example, prematurity, nutmeg flavor) is exceeded by the daughter varieties. The opposite is a regression , that is, the regression of positive properties. In addition to the crossbreeding and sowing, therefore, a selection must always be made among the seedlings.
For the new breed of modern fungus-resistant varieties interspecific crosses (species of the European Vitis vinifera with American or Asian species) are carried out in order to cross the lack of European mildew resistance of the American vines in Vitis vinifera varieties while maintaining the high quality wine. Unfortunately, the unwanted one is also inherited at these interspecific crossings Foxton the American vines very easily, which is already tastable in the slightest concentrations. Therefore, repeated back and intercrossings have to be made in order to return to European quality standards while maintaining the highest possible fungal resistance. For regulatory reasons, the final product should no longer exhibit typical hybrid characteristics. These are continuous tendril position, a closed shoot tip or a higher content of the dye Malvidine-Diglucoside, Ideally, Vitis vinifera strains should be cultivated with a crossed-in resistance gene complex, with fungal resistance becoming more and more attenuated with each backcrossing with Vitis vinifera strains.
The ancestry of the sorts seedling newly created and selected at the end of the crossing process is represented by a breeding scheme (pedigree) in order to be able to understand the complicated and intertwined crossing steps. However, the end result - the new variety - is far from being fit for cultivation in practice, and is followed by a decades-long, very laborious and painstaking evaluation process, until the new grape variety can be approved. The vines are tested for decades in several locations and their properties are constantly monitored until they are certified after passing and passed exam and thus the variety protection receive. After growing trials in the countries and regions, the regional or national classification and approval for commercial cultivation, which initially limited to certain wine regions and can last many years. Not all varieties pass these tough long trials and not a few have to be withdrawn.
This oldest breeding method has been used by humans for millennia. In the process, conspicuous vine plants with interesting properties were cultivated and vegetatively propagated via cuttings. In today Georgia grape seeds were found from cultivated vines, which between 5.000 and 7.000 v. Chr. Be dated. Presumably, pollination has not yet been deliberately pollinated, but sowing of grape seed may have been an early and widespread method of getting rid of the sprouted seedlings Select grape varieties with new characteristics. Of course, seedlings have sprouted spontaneously. Grape varieties with hermaphrodite flowers were preferred, as they did not have to be pollinated by foreigners and ensured a secure yield. There is a distinction between massive selection and clone selection.
With the mass selection (also field selection, French selection massale, mass = mass) become certain vines with desired positive characteristics such as Maturity date, Grape (eg. loose- ) or resistance (eg frost. drought ) in a vineyard for the purpose of reproduction. This can be in this vineyard also several (many) vines. From the selected vines are cut rice and on suitable documents grafted. This then dead, sick or other reasons to be removed vines are replaced in the vineyard. In this way you can gradually renew a vineyard.
In contrast, in clone breeding a single vine is selected (mother vine), which in one nursery then vegetatively propagated and used in many vineyards. This form is used when a completely new vineyard is to be created and is now commonplace. The vines in a vineyard are all genetically 100% dentic, so to say Clones, Critics of this form complain of the resulting loss of genetic diversity in such monocultures. This is done by using different clones vine taken into account in a vineyard.
artificial mutations can be deliberately induced by ionic or radioactive irradiation or biochemical treatment of cell cultures, callus tissues, seeds, pollen grains, buds and cuttings or other regenerative plant parts of the vine. Often it is isolated plant tissues that undergo a special treatment in the laboratory. Thereafter, new plants are regenerated from the tissues, which are evaluated for their changed properties. By treatment with colchicine (poisonous ingredient from autumn timeless seeds), for example, plants with tetrapolide (4n = 76) sets of chromosomes can be produced, which are more productive, but also more susceptible to environmental stress. However, these methods mostly mean manipulative genetic engineering and are still very controversial.
In the vineyard can be spontaneous and accidental mutations in buds or cell lines morphological grow out of different shoots, from which vegetative propagation new grape clones can be diverted again. For example, the variety complexes of very old varieties such as Pinot. Traminer. Chasseals or muscatel, These have numerous mutation-related variants and somatic chimeric produced, which can be visually or tastily and at higher cost mostly genotypically different (clone variants). By clone selection, such naturally occurring mutants are read visually and by vegetative propagation as a "spurious" variety with its own name or as a new one clone preserved and duplicated. In this case, one uses natural processes of nature.
In addition to the new breeding and selection of new grape varieties from seedlings or the selection visually striking Klonmutanten less spectacular conservation breeding plays an important role in the practice. Each vine has its own specific life history, in which he has climatic capers, the attacks of numerous Vine enemies, as well as numerous mechanical interventions. Also, a variety-specific aging process takes place, which leads to the reduction of the immune system and infections virus. bacteria or mushrooms favored. All this leads to a slow but steady disintegration, the degradation of the root mycorrhizal (Plant-fungus symbiosis) and increasing vine fatigue,
The production and growth of the old vines in many old plants around the turn of the century was therefore already very impaired. In order to improve the yields of the vineyards again, some Rebexperten began like for example Gustav Adolf Froelich (1847-1912) from the end of the 19th century with the positive selection of vigorous, healthy and productive, as well as additionally flowering and not for Verrieseln sloping vines. At first it was Silva heritage items, later other varieties followed as well Riesling and Pinot Noir ( Pinot Noir ). The "best" vines in the vineyards were selected according to visual criteria, marked and further propagated via cuttings propagation. These primary clones were planted in special facilities for further observation under uniform growth conditions.
From this, the standardized procedure of single-stock selection has evolved over time. The quality of the primary clones in the trial vineyard is recorded and assessed over a period of five years (rating). A single stick, which has received five times the best rating (5 points) is then called "Elitestock" and further increased. Today, such a stick must also meet the criterion of virus freedom, to which standardized ELISA tests available for testing for vines-specific virus types. From this elite stick one generates by finishing ten grafts, which are again observed and tested for five years (intermediate examination). If this test was positive in all respects (yield reliability, flowering strength, yield level, wine quality, etc.), it comes with at least 100 sticks for the main test. This extends over five years with the respective statistical evaluation. If these selected vines have received a positive rating in all disciplines, then this selected material becomes clone named and receives an approval number.
These yield clones, which are positively selected according to health and yield criteria, generally differ very little in their relation to each other morphological Characteristics, but especially in mostly only statistically detectable over the years characteristics such as a slightly different flowering resistance, the number of grapes on the vine, the average size of grapes, or the density of berries. Also, growth characteristics such as upright or lateral growth, the budding time, the duration of the ripening period, the time of the completion of the vegetation, the wood maturity and other quantitative, seasonally influenced characteristics are taken into account. The test procedure up to the clone approval takes 15 to 20 years. All clones must be tested and virus-free.
Like one new breed the tested clones must be approved by official bodies. With the approval, the breeder undertakes to breed the clone until it logs out and to guarantee the preservation of the cloned health and specific cloning characteristics. Only then will new clones be added to the list of varieties with certified cloning material. Now they are allowed in commercial nurseries be propagated vegetatively, where they are bought by the winegrower and planted in the vineyards. In order to obtain the good properties of these plants, a constant observation, virus and nematode control and, if appropriate, the positive selection in the clone parent gardens should be carried out.
Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)