The dreaded vine disease was already known to the Romans, which has been proven through the descriptions of the symptoms. It is one of the most important diseases in the world caused by viticulture virus caused. There was a strong increase in Europe from the 1880s onwards during the Phylloxera disaster through contaminated documents, The course of the disease is insidious. The first symptoms only appear a few years after infection. It is a group of several related diseases. Because of this, there are also many synonyms such as, for example, Fasziation (Association), shortness of knot (French Court noué) and the one shown in the picture below Panachure, which partly describes not the disease itself, but its symptoms (which also occur in a similar form in other diseases). In the 19th century, the prevailing opinion was that the cause was a degenerative sequela of excessive vegetative propagation the grapevine be.
It was not until the 1930s that various virus complexes were recognized as the cause, and numerous of these viruses were subsequently identified. Brushwood disease leads to pronounced degenerative changes in Rebstock, Both exaggerated this manifests itself through short knots (the Inter Nodien are very short, two or more knots follow each other closely), zigzag growth, shoots that have grown together, broom growth (bushy appearance) and bandage (fascination). Both Scroll are the symptoms yellowing. Panachüren (Multicolor), small-leaved and asymmetrical varietal forms. Both grapes can millerandage With seedless Berries occur. Often there is also a strong one Verrieseln after blossom in front.
However, these diverse symptoms vary depending on the variety, wine region and vintage, which makes identification difficult. There are particularly vulnerable grape varieties, which include Cabernet Sauvignon and Kerner, The lengthy process of illness can take up to ten years. In the worst case, the loss of yield can amount to around 80% of the harvest. In the worst case, entire vineyards must be cleared and one to five to eight years old fallow respectively. The causes are various virus complexes, but mainly these are the four groups Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFLV), which is only found on the vine, and the other groups also affecting other plants Arabis Mosaic Virus (ArMV), raspberry ring spot virus (Raspberry Ringspot Virus = RpRSV) and tomato black ring spot virus (TbRSV).
The infection occurs through nematodes (Roundworms) in circular herds from vine to vine. The species Xiphinema index and Xiphinema vuittenezi transfer the GFLV, the species Xiphinema diversicaudatum the ARMV. It is spread over longer distances by infected plant material ( documents. scions ). Since a direct fight against the long-lived viruses living at a depth of one meter has not yet been found, preventive measures must be taken by means of nematode-resistant documents and controls when creating new vineyards. The grape variety Kerner seems to respond in a special way to the ArMV virus, which is why the disease is also known as this strain Kerner disease designated. The symptoms described above are often associated with other symptoms such as Herbicide damage, Deficiency symptoms or physiological Faults confused. A virus infection must therefore, for example, by means of ELISA - Virus tests can be checked beyond any doubt. See also a complete listing of all vine diseases and pests below Vine enemies,