Even the Romans knew this dreaded vine disease, which is proven by descriptions of the symptoms obtained. It is one of the world's most significant diseases in viticulture virus caused. There was a strong increase in Europe from the 1880s during the Phylloxera disaster contaminated by documents, The course of the disease is insidious. Only after a few years after the infection do first symptoms appear. It is a group of several related diseases. Because of this, there are also many synonyms, such as, for example, degradation disease, fan blade foliage, Fasziation (Verb), Kurzknotigkeit (French court noué) and the one shown in the picture below Panachure However, this does not describe the disease itself, but rather its symptoms (some of which are similar in other diseases as well). In the 19th century it was still believed that the cause was a degenerative consequence of excessive vegetative propagation the grapevine be.
It was not until the 1930s that various virus complexes were identified as the cause, and many of these viruses were subsequently identified. The brushwood disease leads to pronounced degenerative changes in the Rebstock, Both exaggerated This is expressed by short-nosedness (the Inter Nodien are very short, two or more knots follow each other closely), zigzagging, intermingled shoots, broom growth (bushy appearance) and banding (fascination). Both Scroll are the symptoms yellowing. Panachüren (Multicolor), small leaves and asymmetric species-unspecific forms. Both grapes can millerandage With seedless Berries occur. Often comes a strong one Verrieseln after blossom in front.
However, these variegated symptoms vary by variety, vineyard and vintage, making identification difficult. There are particularly susceptible grape varieties, including Cabernet Sauvignon and Kerner, The lengthy disease process can last up to ten years. In the worst case, the yield loss can amount to around 80% of the harvest. In the worst case, entire vineyards have to be deeply cleared and one to five to eight years old fallow respectively. The causes are various virus complexes, but these are mainly the four groups Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFLV), which exists only on the grapevine, as well as the other plants infesting three groups Arabis Mosaic Virus (ArMV), Raspberry Ringpot Virus (Raspberry Ringspot Virus = RpRSV) and Tomato Black Ringpot Virus (TbRSV).
The infection takes place through nematodes (Roundworms) in circular herds from vine to vine. The species Xiphinema index and Xiphinema vuittenezi transmit the GFLV, the species Xiphinema diversicaudatum the ArMV. Over long distances spread by infected plant material ( documents. scions ). Since a direct fight against the long-lived, one-meter deep virus is not yet found, preventive measures must be carried out by nematode-resistant documents and controls when creating new vineyards. The grape variety Kerner seems to respond in a particular way to the ArMV virus, therefore, the disease is also in this variety as Kerner disease designated. The symptoms described above are often associated with other symptoms like Herbicide damage, Deficiency symptoms or physiological Disturbances confused. A viral infection must therefore, for example by means of ELISA -Virustests be verified beyond doubt. See also a complete listing of all vine diseases and pests below Vine enemies,