The region in the east France covers 32,000 km². The capital is Dijon, the wine capital, however Beaune, Administratively, it is divided into the four departments of Côte d'Or, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire and Yonne. The Burgundy wine region, however, does not match this. The wooded Nièvre with its Oak wood for the production of barriques namely belongs to the wine-growing region Loire, The department of Rhône in the south (not to be confused with the wine-growing region Rhone ), the home of the Beaujolais, has great independence. In administrative terms, it belongs to the Rhône-Alpes region, but is included in the Burgundy wine region. The north-facing department of Yonne with the area chablis is also known as Basse-Bourgogne.
Burgundy is one of the oldest and most important wine-growing regions in France. Viticulture was influenced by the Greeks even before the Romans came later. These supplied wine and art objects to those who lived here at the time Celts (Gaul). The famous Vix crater (a jug for wine) in a Celtic princess tomb from the 6th century BC testifies to the trade between the two peoples. The first evidence of viticulture comes from the year 312 from a letter to Emperor Constantine (288-337). Bishop Gregory of Tours (538-594) wrote in his story about the Franks that in the mountains west of Dijon a noble with the Falernian comparable wine wax.
According to legend, Kaiser owned Charlemagne (742-814) a still existing vineyard in the municipality Aloxe-Corton, Burgundy consisted of two kingdoms from 879 and was an independent duchy from 947 to 1493. The great importance of the Catholic church for French and European viticulture is inseparable from the Cistercians connected. This order was founded in the Cîteaux monastery in 1098 by Robert de Molesme. Avignon was founded in 1308 as a place of exile for the popes. They delighted in the "Beaune wine" and Pope Urban V. (1310-1370) issued a bull in 1364, in which he threatened excommunication and forbade the Abbot of Cîteaux to send even a drop of Beaune wine to Rome.
In 1443 the famous became under the Burgundian Duke Philip the Good (1396-1467) Hospices de Beaune founded, whose income comes from a vineyard and has now been used for the elderly and nursing for 600 years. The duke is credited with personally a variety of the variety Pinot Noir selected and prescribed as a mandatory grape variety for the area. He also passed laws that were already a kind of appellation system in Burgundy. At that time, Beaune wine was one of the most famous in the world. The clergyman Claude Arnoux (1695-1770) published the book "La Situation de la Bourgogne" in 1728, in which he described the Burgundy wines and their preparation.
The history of Burgundian viticulture was very changeable in the following centuries. In the 1930s, the aftermath of the First World War (1914-1918), abstinence movements and multi-year crop failures led to a major sales crisis that forced many landowners to sell their vineyards. This is why two Burgundian patriots founded the wine brotherhood in 1934 Confrérie des Chevaliers du Tastevin to preserve the tradition of Burgundy wine. It organizes annual events such as the Les Trois Glorieuses and Saint-Vincent Tournante,
Over 10,000 winegrowers cultivate around 40,000 hectares of vineyards. Most have only one or two hectares, which is why Burgundy is also known as the "land of small property owners". Only around a third of them are exclusively winegrowers. The big wineries are not called here Bordeaux " Chateau ", But mostly" Domaine ". The very different soils consist of granite and slate, marl and limestone as well as gravel and clay. The largely continental climate is characterized by cold winters and relatively short summers due to the northern location. In the months of May and June and October there are often productive ones rainfall,
He plays in the centrally organized quality classification system for the appellations Terroir-thought a major role. Small plots next to each other are often completely different. For example, around 60 different ones were found in the Côte de Nuits area soil types determined by physical and chemical characteristics, hillside etc. differentiate and have long ago led to a classification in quality classes. Every single vineyard (Cru, Climat) on the Côte d'Or and in Chablis (but not in Beaujolais and Mâconnais) is precisely recorded. The system, which is valid for the entire region with over 100 appellations, is considered complicated, but is different from that Bordeaux Classification just uniform. It is largely based on Jules' 1861 Lavalle (1820-1880) system. This is in detail below Burgundy classification described.
From the 1990s in Burgundy there was a rethink towards natural viticulture. Anne-Claude Leflaive, the owner of the Domaine Leflaive, warned of the consequences of exploitative farming and predicted that there would be no Burgundian vineyards and no more wines in the foreseeable future if the soil were not taken care of. Your winery and also the famous one Domaine de la Romanée-Conti set up Biodynamic viticulture and were pioneers not only in Burgundy, but throughout France and other countries Organic (ecological) viticulture,
Around 75% white wines and 25% red and rose wines are produced. The big difference to Bordeaux and other regions is that the wines mostly unmixed to be produced. Due to the climatic conditions, early ripening varieties are best suited. The four dominant varieties are Chardonnay and Aligoté for white wines, as well Pinot Noir and Gamay (Beaujolais) for red wines.
The largest areas (where further appellations are listed):
The Côte d'Or - aptly called the "Golden Slope" - is the heart and showpiece of Burgundy with many famous wine communities as independent appellations. The best red wines grow in the northern part of the Côte de Nuits in the municipalities Chambolle-Musigny. Gevrey-Chambertin and Vosne-Romanée with many highly classified climates / layers (grands crus and premiers crus). Top white wines come from the areas Aloxe-Corton. chablis. Meursault and Montrachet (Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet). Top Burgundy plants are among the best and most expensive wines in the world,