The red grape variety comes either from France (Bordeaux) or from Spain (Basque Country = País Vasco). There are around 80 Synonyms that testify to old age and worldwide distribution. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Achéria, Ardounet, Arrouya, Bidure, Boubet, Bouchet Franc, Bouchet Saint-Émilion, Bouchy, Breton, Cabernet Aunis, Cabernet Francese, Cabernet Franc Noir, Cabernet Gris, Cabrunet, Capbreton Rouge, Carmenet, Couahort , Crouchen Negre, Crouchen Noir, Gros Bouchet, Gros Cabernet, Grosse Vidure, Messanges Rouge, Morenoa Veron Bouchy, Noir Dur, Plant Breton, Plant de l'Abbé Breton, Sable Rouge, Trouchet, Trouchet Noir, Véron, Vidure, Vuidure ( France ); Tsapournako ( Greece ); Cabernet Franc Crni ( Croatia ); Cabernet Bresciano, Cabernet Frank ( Italy ); Bordo ( Romania ); Bordeaux ( Switzerland ); Verdejilla Tinto ( Spain ).
Despite apparently indicative synonyms or morphological It must not be similar to the varieties Ardonnet. arrouya noir. Béquignol Noir. Cabernet Sauvignon. Carmenère. Gros Cabernet or Hondarribi Beltza be confused. It is a very old variety in the Bordeaux, however, genetic and historical facts indicate an origin from the Spanish Basque country out. According to a hypothesis, Cabernet Sauvignon was introduced under the name Achéria by pilgrims from Irouléguy (French Basque Country) on their way to Santiago de Compostela (Galicia) in Spain. But the opposite way is also conceivable.
According to an improbable hypothesis, it is that of the Roman authors Pliny the Elder (23-79) and Columella mentioned ancient variety Biturica what the synonym Bidure should indicate. The parentage is unknown. It is considered important in the European grape variety gene pool leading variety, through DNA analysis were presumably natural intersections direct descendants are determined or Parent-offspring relationships detected. She was also a crossing partner of some new varieties :
The first mention of the variety as Breton could come from 1534 by the famous poet François Rabelais (1495–1553) in his work “Gargantua and Pantagruel”. According to another variant, Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) sent over 1,000 vines from Bordeaux to his estate manager Abbé Breton in 1631, who used them in the Loire areas Bourgueil and Chinon planted. The first mention under the name Cabernet Franc was not made until 1823. The name Cabernet and the old synonyms mentioned were also used for other varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, which makes an exact determination difficult.
The medium-ripening, small-berry vine is susceptible to both mildews and Botrytis, It is particularly well suited for clay-lime and sandy soils. The variety does not produce particularly colorful, spicy red wines with soft, silky tannins with raspberry aroma as well vegetable Grades. The wines, which usually mature quickly, also have a shelf life if they are aged accordingly. The wine similar to Cabernet Sauvignon is somewhat in the shadow of the higher-quality offspring and is rather rare unmixed expanded.
The variety occupies 36,302 hectares of vineyards in France with a downward trend. It is mainly in Bordeaux with around 12,500 hectares, on the Loire with around 16,000 hectares and in Southwest France represented wherever it is approved in numerous appellations. With Cabernet Sauvignon and / or Merlot, Cabernet Franc is a classic partner in Bordeaux blend, In the large wines, however, it is only included (if at all) up to a maximum of 10%; examples are Château Lafite-Rothschild. Château Mouton-Rothschild (Médoc) and Château Petrus (Pomerol). in the Château Cheval Blanc (Saint-Émilion), on the other hand, it is even dominant.
Other countries are Germany (16 ha), England (1 ha), Greece (23 ha), Italy especially in the northeastern regions (6,314 ha), Kazakhstan (56 ha), Croatia (95 ha), Austria (56 ha), Portugal (24 ha), Romania (73 ha), Russia (20 ha), Switzerland (54 ha), Spain (849 ha), Turkey (23 ha), Hungary (1,352 ha) and Cyprus (203 ha). There are stocks in overseas Argentina (626 ha), Australia (591 ha), Brazil (229 ha), Chile (1,321 ha), China (507 ha), Canada (664 ha), New Zealand (163 ha), South Africa (934 ha) and Uruguay (334 ha), as well as in the United States (2,215 ha) in Indiana. California. Michigan. new York. Oregon. Virginia and Washington, The variety occupied a total of 53,042 hectares in 2010. It was in the worldwide varieties ranking at rank 17.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)