The red grape variety comes either from France (Bordeaux) or Spain (Basque Country = País Vasco). There are around 80 Synonyms that testify the old age and the worldwide spread. The main alphabetical groups are Achéria, Ardounet, Arrouya, Bidure, Boubet, Bouchet Franc, Bouchet Saint-Emilion, Bouchy, Breton, Cabernet Aunis, Cabernet Francese, Cabernet Franc Noir, Cabernet Gris, Cabrunet, Capbreton Rouge, Carmenet, Couahort Crouch Noir, Crouch Noir, Gros Bouchet, Gros Cabernet, Gros Vidure, Messanges Rouge, Morenoa Veron Bouchy, Noir Dur, Plant Breton, Plant de l'Abbé Breton, Sable Rouge, Trouchet, Trouchet Noir, Véron, Vidure, Vuidure ( France ); Tsapournako ( Greece ); Cabernet Franc Crni ( Croatia ); Cabernet Bresciano, Cabernet Frank ( Italy ); Bordo ( Romania ); Bordeaux ( Switzerland ); Verdejilla Tinto ( Spain ).
Despite seemingly indicative synonyms or morphological She may not share similarities with the varieties Ardonnet. arrouya noir. Béquignol Noir. Cabernet Sauvignon. Carmenère. Gros Cabernet or Hondarribi Beltza be confused. It is a very old variety in the Bordeaux However, genetic and historical facts point to an origin from the Spanish Basque country out. According to one hypothesis, Cabernet Sauvignon was introduced to Spain under the name Achéria by pilgrims from Irouléguy (French Basque country) on their way to Santiago de Compostela (Galicia). But it is also the reverse way imaginable.
An unlikely hypothesis is that of the Roman authors Pliny the Elder (23-79) and Columella mentioned antique variety Biturica what the synonym Bidure is supposed to indicate. The parentage is unknown. It is considered important in the European varietal gene pool leading variety, through DNA analysis were by probably natural intersections resulting direct descendants are determined or Parent-offspring relationships detected. She was also a crossing partner of some new varieties :
A first mention of the variety as Breton could come from the year 1534 by the famous poet François Rabelais (1495-1553) in his work "Gargantua and Pantagruel". According to another variant, Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) in 1631 sent over 1,000 vines from Bordeaux to his estate manager Abbé Breton, who took them to the Loire areas Bourgueil and Chinon planted. A first mention under the name Cabernet Franc, there was only in 1823. The name Cabernet and the aforementioned old synonyms were also used for other varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, which makes exact determination difficult.
The medium-maturing, small-berry vine is susceptible to both mildews and Botrytis, It is particularly suitable for loamy and sandy soils. The variety does not produce particularly colorful, spicy red wines with gentle, silky tannins with raspberry flavor as well vegetable Grades. The usually rapidly ripening wines have but with appropriate expansion and shelf life. The Cabernet Sauvignon similar wine is somewhat in the shadow of higher-quality offspring and is rather rare unmixed expanded.
The variety occupies in France 36,302 hectares of vineyards with falling tendency. She is mostly in the Bordeaux with around 12,500 hectares, at the Loire with around 16,000 hectares and in Southwest France where she is widely accepted in numerous appellations. Cabernet Franc is a classic partner in Cabernet Sauvignon and / or Merlot Bordeaux blend, In the big wines, however, it is only included (if at all) up to a maximum of 10%; examples are Château Lafite-Rothschild. Château Mouton-Rothschild (Médoc) and Château Pétrus (Pomerol). in the Château Cheval Blanc (Saint-Émilion), however, it is even dominant.
Other countries are Germany (16 ha), England (1 ha), Greece (23 ha), Italy especially in the northeastern regions (6,314 ha), Kazakhstan (56 ha), Croatia (95 ha), Austria (56 ha), Portugal (24 ha), Romania (73 ha), Russia (20 ha), Switzerland (54 ha), Spain (849 ha), Turkey (23 ha), Hungary (1,352 ha) and Cyprus (203 ha). There are stocks in overseas Argentina (626 ha), Australia (591 ha), Brazil (229 ha), Chile (1,321 ha), China (507 ha), Canada (664 ha), New Zealand (163 ha), South Africa (934 ha) and Uruguay (334 ha), as well as in the United States (2,215 ha) in Indiana. California. Michigan. new York. Oregon. Virginia and Washington, The variety occupied a total of 53,042 hectares in 2010. It was thus worldwide varieties ranking on the 17th rank.
Source : Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures : Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)