The German officer Johann (John) Schiller laid in 1811 near Toronto on Credit River vineyards with eight acres, which is considered the birth of Canadian viticulture. He experimented with found there Wild vines the species Vitis labrusca, In 1866, wine growers were out in the southern tip of the country on the island of Pelee in Lake Erie Kentucky Vineyards with the variety Isabella planted. By the end of the 19th century, there were already around 50 vineyards, most of them in the province of Ontario. From the 1930s, many were French and American hybrids planted, paying particular attention to Frost resistance was laid. One of the main players was the wine-growing pioneer Adhémar de Chaunac (* 1896).
The introduced in 1916 and valid until 1927 prohibition prohibition of public alcohol consumption in Canada (as opposed to the United States ) a big boom in viticulture. Because wine was - by clever lobbying of wine producers - from alcohol ban except. At that time, the still existing "Liquor Board System" was created, in which the sale of alcoholic beverages by state shops takes place (now this is also allowed by private stores). Until the 1970s, especially sweet, high-alcohol wines from Labrusca varieties were produced, which were then referred to as sherry or port.
Amazingly, the first license since Prohibition for a privately owned wine-growing operation was awarded only in 1975, this was the winery Inniskillin (in Ontario - there is also a winery Inniskillin Okanaga in the province of British Columbia). This traditional business is located on the Niagara Peninsula near the famous Falls. One of the two founders was the Austrian-born pioneer Karl Emperor (1941-2017), the production of Icewine (Eiswein) initiated, which is favored by the climatic conditions. Today, Canada is the world's largest producer of ice wines, mainly made from Vidal Blanc, Chenin Blanc and Riesling. This started the transformation and increased cultivation of European Vitis vinifera varieties. However, the hybrids still make up a relatively large proportion. Of the Blend 2010:
|Blattner Reds||red||different varieties of Valentin Blattner||39|
|Seyve-Villard 23-512||White||see below Seyve Villard||29|
|Blattner Whites||White||different varieties of Valentin Blattner||25|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||8th|
The climate is extremely cold with very cold winters averaging minus 5 ° C and hot summers, but far more favorable and optimal for viticulture on the southern Niagara Peninsula due to the mitigating influence of the vast Ontario and Erie lakes. In 1988, the appellation system VQA (Vintners Quality Alliance) was introduced. In doing so, the province or the geographical ancestry specified. In the province of Ontario there are the classified areas Lake Erie North Shore, Niagara Peninsula and Pelee Iceland. In the province of British Columbia , there are the four areas Fraser Valley, Okanagan Valley, Similkameen Valley and Vancouver Iceland.
The small wine-growing areas in the provinces of Nova Scotia = Nova Scotia (with hybrids and Russian varieties) and Quebec (especially Seyval Blanc) are not VQA classified. The wines must come from grapes of the province and be bottled there. Only hybrids and vinifera varieties are allowed (no native Vitis labrusca). VQA-approved grape varieties are processed into port wine and sherry imitations, or light wines (up to 7% vol). Mandatory minimum Mostgewichte but there are none income limits,
When mentioning the province, the specified grape variety must come from 75% to 75%, with the origin indicating 85%. In the case of two grape varieties, the second must account for at least 10% of the wine, with 95% of the year for the vintage. The wines complete one sensory Control and receive the black on positive decision, the golden VQA seal when reaching 15 to 20 points. All information on the label must be in English and French, for example Vin de glace and Icewine for the Eiswein,
In 2012, the vineyards covered a total of 12,000 hectares with an upward trend (in 2000 it was 8,000 hectares). Of these, 570,000 hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ). Key producers include Château des Charmes, Gray Monk Estate Winery, Hawthorne Mountain Vineyard, Henry of Pelham Family, Hillebrand Estates. Inniskillin (in Ontario and British Columbia), Mission Hill Winery, Quayles Gate Estate Wibnery, and Sumac Ridge Estate Winery Vincor International,