The red berry variety is one New breeding between Ribier ( Alphonse Lavallée ) x Queen of the vineyards. Synonyms are Apostoliatiko, Cardenal, Cardinal Crveni, Francesa, G 10-30, Karaburnu Rannii, Kardinal and Rannii Carabournu. The parenthood specified in the breeding list Ahmeur Bou Ahmeur (Flame Tokay) x Ribier has been through through in 2009 DNA analysis turned out to be wrong. The crossing took place in 1939 and 1943 California by the breeders Elmer Snyder and F. Harmon. She was a crossing partner in the new varieties Alba, Arkadia, Blanc Du Bois, Carina (2), Corredera, Diana (2), Flame Seedless, Sugraone, Zagore and Zhemchuzhina Oskhi. An early one mutation is the table grape Cardinal Early.
The early ripening, productive vine is susceptible to both Powdery mildew and Botrytis, as well as sensitive to frost. As Table grape will be in large quantities in the countries Bulgaria (~ 2,000 ha), Italy (~ 4,000 ha), Romania (~ 4,000 ha) and Spain (~ 6,000 ha). The global population is estimated at around 30,000 hectares. Cardinal is also partly used as Wine grape used. There are areas under cultivation in the countries Croatia (91 ha), Mexico (168 ha), Austria, Peru (53 ha), Spain (16 ha), Sri Lanka, Thailand, USA and Vietnam. In 2010 a total of 536 hectares of vineyards were reported (Statistics Kym Anderson ).
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)