To the terpenes counting group of dyes with over 800 naturally occurring, different species. They are widespread in the animal and plant kingdom and cause there a yellow, green, orange to reddish color. The carotenoids are at the photosynthesis responsible for the protection against photo-oxidation as well as for energy transfer. The most common carotenoid is β-carotene (carrot), a precursor of Vitamin A, Carotenoids are also used for coloring and as a flavor enhancer of foods. Some carotenoids have the function of antioxidants and therefore have a preventative effect on many diseases such as Alzheimer's, arteriosclerosis, cataracts, skin aging, cancer, Parkinson's and rheumatism.
Certain carotenoid derivatives act as odor-intensive in wine flavorings, From carotenoids are formed by chemical processes other flavors such as Damascenone (β-damascenon) and that for the petrol tone responsible TDN, The second large group of plant colorants found in grapes are the flavonoids which are mainly responsible for the dark colors from blue to black.