To the terpenes counting group of dyes with over 800 naturally occurring, different types. They are widespread in the animal and plant kingdom and cause there a yellow, green, orange to reddish color. The carotenoids are in the photosynthesis responsible for protection against photo-oxidation, as well as for energy transfer. The most common carotenoid is β-carotene (carrot), a precursor of Vitamin A, Carotenoids are also used for coloring and as a flavor enhancer for food. Some carotenoids act as antioxidants and therefore have a preventive effect in many diseases such as Alzheimer's, arteriosclerosis, cataracts, aging, cancer, Parkinson's and rheumatism.
Certain carotenoid derivatives act as odor-intensive in wine flavorings, Carotenoids form other aromas, such as, for example, through chemical processes Damascenone (β-Damascenon) and that for the petrol tone responsible TDN, The second large group of plant dyes found in grapes are flavonoids who are mainly responsible for the dark colors from blue to black.