The white grape comes from France. There are around 120 Synonyms which on the age and worldwide distribution in most Wine-growing countries Clues. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Clevner, Clävner ( Alsace ); Arboisier, Arnaison Blanc, Arnoison, Aubain, Aubaine, Auvergnat Blanc, Auvernat Blanc, Auxerrois, Auxois, Beaunois, Blanc de Champagne, Chardonnet, Chaudenay, Chaudent, Epinette, Epinette de Champagne, Gamay Blanc, Gentil Blanc, Luisant, Melon à Queue Rouge, Melon Blanc, Melon d'Arbois, Melon d'Arlay, Morillon, Morillon Blanc, Noirien Blanc, Pinot Blanc Chardonnay, Pinot de Bourgogne, Rousseau ( France ); Yellow Burgundy, Klawner, White Ruländer ( Germany ); Chardonnay Bijeli ( Croatia ); Obaideh ( Lebanon ); Wais Edler, Waiser Clevner ( Moldova ); Morillon, Pinot Noir ( Austria ). Despite seemingly indicative synonyms or morphological No similarities to the varieties Aligote, Auxerrois (Beaunois), Melon de Bourgogne, Pinot Blanc (very similar), Sacy or Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) can be confused.
Until the late 19th century, Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc were often confused. The Ampelograph Victor Pulliat (1827-1896) had already assumed two different varieties in 1868 and this was officially recognized at least in France in 1872. Other countries had problems for much longer and the two were considered identical. In Austria they were recorded and shown together in the official lists of grape varieties until 1999. It was only through in 1999 DNA analysis Independence was finally confirmed: Chardonnay is a natural cross between Gouais Blanc x Pinot. In the Austrian Styria Chardonnay is traditionally called Morillon referred to and often regarded as independent. Although this vine shows slight morphological differences compared to Chardonnay, it is genetically identical.
According to a hypothesis, the Lebanon cultivated variety Obaideh be the ancestor, which is obsolete due to the now clarified parentage. Obaideh is probably one clone, DNA analyzes in this regard are still pending (as of 2013). There are three Mutations from Chardonnay: Chardonnay Rosé with pink berries, Chardonnay Musqué with delicate Musk tone the wines pressed from it and those grown in the French Jura Melon à queue rouge. However, it cannot be ruled out that Chardonnay Rosé is the base variety and that the white variety has mutated from it. Chardonnay was / is a popular crossbreeding partner of new varieties, among others Chardonel, Charmont, Khazan, Cristina, Doral, Heranecot, Korai Gyöngy, Liliorila, Perdea, Perraton, Ravat Blanc, Sila, Sukholimansky Bely and Tissier Ravat.
The variety was first mentioned under Beaunois in 1583 in the Saône-et-Loire department, but it could also have meant Aligoté. A reliable name under Chardonnet took place in 1685. Today's main name is said to be after the Burgundian community of Chardonnay ( Mâconnais ) have received. The Roman Catholic orders of the Benedictine and Cistercian have definitely ensured the spread of the variety throughout Europe. The early ripening vine is very sensitive. It is susceptible to real ones mildew, Botrytis, Yellowing respectively. Flavescence doree, Trickle and Small berries. The variety inherits white wines with a wide variety of flavors of hazelnut, marzipan and butter oxidation tend. There are around 30 recognized clones in France (see Dijon clones ) that are partly related Yield and susceptibility to disease are quite different.
There are also great differences and diversity in the wines. Character and taste are stronger than with other grape varieties from Soil type, climate and Winemaking dependent. Processes like here are much more common than with most white wines malolactic fermentation, Yeast storage and Barrel expansion practiced. The versatile variety is very suitable for all types of expansion dry to sweet and also excellent for the production of Sparkling wine. It is very often expanded according to type, but is also a popular blending partner, including from Semillon, for which the term "Semchard" has become common. The variety separates the spirits, because there are die-hard critics to opponents, which is a well-known saying ABC (Anything But Chardonnay = everything but Chardonnay) led, but at least as many fans. In summary, it can be said that Chardonnay is one of the greatest in the world, the Cépages nobles.
In France, the variety is extremely popular and successful. The acreage increased sixfold from 7,325 hectares in 1958 to 44,593 hectares in 2010. She is behind Ugni Blanc ( Trebbiano Toscano ) the second most common white grape. The largest quantities are in Burgundy (33%), Languedoc-Roussillon (27%) and Champagne (21%). All great Burgundy white wines are made from this variety. These are primarily the areas Cote de Beaune (southern half of the Cote d'Or ) with the world famous appellations Aloxe Corton, Meursault and Montrachet, such as chablis and Mâconnais. Likewise, all are pressed as "Blanc de Blancs" champagne produced from Chardonnay and in the champagne cuvées, this is the most important grape variety besides the red ones Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier. The competition is held once a year Chardonnay du Monde in the Burgundian municipality of Chaintré.
In Italy a total of 19,709 hectares are planted with it. Here the variety is mainly found in the regions Trentino-South Tyrol, Lombardy, Puglia and Sicily grown. Other countries in Europe and North Africa are Belgium, Bulgaria (2,457 ha), Germany (1,228 ha), England (235 ha), Georgia, Greece (586 ha), Israel, Croatia (668 ha), Luxembourg (16 ha), Malta, Moldova (5,134 ha), Austria (1,431 ha), Portugal (803 ha), Romania (1,067 ha), Russia (1,981 ha), Switzerland (321 ha), Slovakia (310 ha), Slovenia (1.208 ha), Serbia, Spain (6,958 ha), Czech Republic (766 ha), Turkey (142 ha), Ukraine (2,985 ha), Hungary (2,757 ha) and Cyprus (128 ha).
In California there was a Chardonnay boom from the 1980s that continued worldwide. Here it is the most common grape variety with 38,555 hectares. Other US states with smaller quantities are Idaho, new York, Oregon, Texas, Virginia and Washington (3,098 ha). Other countries are overseas Argentina (6,473 ha), Australia (27,773), Bolivia, Brazil (377 ha), Chile (13,082), China (738 ha), India, Japan (602 ha), Canada (1,178 ha), Mexico, Myanmar (1 ha), New Zealand (3,911 ha), Peru (1 ha), South Africa (8.278) and Uruguay (149 ha). The variety occupied a total of 198,793 hectares of vineyards in 2010. Compared to 1990 with 69,282 hectares at the time, this resulted in around three times the amount. It was ranked 5th in the global grape variety ranking.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)