The origin of the white vine is unclear one of the hypotheses is Switzerland. Around 250 Synonyms (60 of them with the name Chasselas) attest to the old age and the worldwide distribution. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Queen Victoria White, Sweetwater White ( Australia ); Edelwein, Bassiraube, Frauentraube, Gutedel, Krachgutedel, Markgräfler, Schönedel, Silberling, Süßling, Viviser, White Gutedel, White Krachgutedel ( Germany ); Queen Victoria White ( England ); Bar-sur-Aube, Bon Blanc, Chasselas Blanchette, Chasselas Blanc Royal, Chasselas Croquant, Chasselas de Barde Montauban, Chasselas de Thomery, Chasselas Musqué, Lausannois, Mornant Blanc, Morne Blanc, Pinzutella, Raisin d'Officier, Rougeasse, Royal Muscadine , Valais Blanc ( France ); Chasselas Bianco, Chasselas Dorato, Lacrima Christi Rose ( Italy ); Plemenka, Plemenka Bijela, Praskava ( Croatia ); Gutedel, Junker, Moster ( Austria ); Sasla ( Romania ); Blanchette, Bois Rouge, Chasselas Blanc, Chasselas Croquant, Chasselas Doré, Chasselas Fendant, Chasselas Giclet, Chasselas Jaune Cire, Chasselas Plant Droit, Chasselat, Dorin, Fendant, Fendant Blanc, Perlan, Woods ( Switzerland ); Chrupka, Chrupka Biela, Chrupka Červená, Chrupka Fialová, Chrupka Petržlenová, Chrupka Muškátová, Chrupka Ružová, Chrupka Ušľachtilá ( Slovakia ); Bela Žlahtnina, Rdeča Žlahtnina ( Slovenia ); Chasselas Dorada, Elba Toro, Franceseta, Temprana Agosta, Temprana Tardia, Tempranillo de Nav, Temprano ( Spain ); Chrupka, Chrupka Bílá, Chrupka Červená, Chrupka Petrželová ( Czech Republic ); Shasla Belaya ( Ukraine ); Chasselas Piros, Fabianszölö, Fehér Chasselas, Fehér Fabianszölö, Saszla ( Hungary ); Amber Chasselas, Chasselas Doré, Golden Bordeaux ( United States ).
It may, despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or morphological Similarities do not match the varieties Albillo Mayor. Barbarossa. Admirable de Courtiller (Chasselas de Courtiller), Chasselas de Pondichery. Fayoumi. Madeleine Royale. Marzemina Bianca. Palomino (Golden Chasselas), Priknadi or Žlahtina be confused. According to 2009 were done DNA analysis exists one Parent-offspring relationship with the variety Mornen Noir, It is the parent of the presumably natural crossbreeding strains Bronner grape. Plant de Séchex. Plant de Vincelles and Sainte Marie, The varieties Chasselas Cioutat ( Sliced Chasselas, Parsley Chassardas ), Chasselas Rose Royal , Chasselas Rouge (Red Chassardas) and Chasselas Violet ( King Chestnut ) are color and / or somatic, as well as Chasselas Musque (Muscat Chasselas ) a flavorful mutation,
Chasselas is one of the oldest cultivated grape varieties. The vine is considered in the European gene pool as leading variety, It is a popular crossing partner of new breeds, among others Angelo Pirovano. Autuchon. Baco Chasselas. Black Prince. Blanc d'Ambre. Challenge. Charmont. Danlas. Doral. Ferdinand de Lesseps. good Borner. Gutknipperlé. Hecker. Hector. Ithaca. Johanniter. Kossuth Ferenc. Lindley. Mathias Jánosne. Megrabuir. Menoir. Millenium grape. Muscat Ottonel. Narancsizü. Nobling. Rabaner. Revolta. Rouge de Diolly. Schönburger and triumph,
According to one hypothesis, an ancestor was already 6,000 BC in the Jordan Valley in today Israel and Jordan cultivated and was in 5,000 years ago Egypt known. They even want to have them recognized on murals in royal tombs at Luxor, but of course, this has no evidential value. Also the ampelographer Adrien Berget suspected an Egyptian origin. An old vine named "Chasselas" allegedly grew in the garden of the Coptic High School of Cairo. It came from the oasis of Al-Fayoum, where Greek settlers allegedly introduced wine to the time of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC). Today, here is a city in the center of the same name Fayoum Basin, According to another hypothesis, the variety with the of Pliny the Elder (23-79) Aminea identical or at least be a descendant.
The Swiss biologist dr. José Vouillamoz led in 2009 with his colleague Claire Arnold from the University of Neuchâtel extensive DNA analysis through and came to a very different result. In his opinion, the variety does not come from the Orient, but from the Swiss canton Vaud on Lake Geneva. Here are especially many varieties of vine before. He refers to the Russian botanist Nikolai I. Vavilov (1887-1943), for whom this is a very important indication for the determination of an origin.
The German botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554) mentioned in his "Kreutzer book" in the edition of 1539 the names Kleinfränkische, Großfränkische, Edel and Lautterdrauben. For the Baden name "Gutedel" there is a historical background. Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm I of Baden (1677-1707) was since the Turkish wars with the Serving for the Habsburg Empire Savoy Prince Prince Eugen (1663-1736) friends. During his visits to Savoy, the wine-loving Margrave is said to have particularly appreciated the spritzig-palatable white wine of the prince, who was pressed by the Chasselas vine and whom he calls (until today) Fendant. Prince Eugen sent him Chasselas seedlings to Baden, which the Margrave had planted in his margraviate. The white wine was perceived as "good" and "noble", which finally gave the name.
The Swiss name "Fendant" (splitting) is derived from the fact that the unusually hard shells, the berries do not burst, but split, if you squeezed between index finger and thumb. The name was first used by the botanist Johannes Bauhin (1541-1613) in his 1650 posthumously published work "Historia Plantarum Universalis". The French name "Chasselas" was first invented in 1654 by Nicolas de Bonnefons (servant of King Louis XIV. ) in his cookbook "Les délices de la campagne". The name most likely derives from the municipality of Chasselas near Mâcon in Burgundy, from where the vine probably spread in France (but therefore does not have to come from there).
The early-ripening, high-yielding vine is susceptible to various vine diseases. These are millerandage (Millerandage) chlorosis. Esca and Black spots disease (Phomopsis). It produces acid and low-alcohol, yellow-green wines with almond flavor, which are usually enjoyed young. Especially in the Switzerland but also very good qualities under the origin-protected name Fendant vinified. Here occupied in 2010 with 4,013 hectares, about a third of the vineyard. The German Grand Duke Karl-Friedrich got to know the vine in Vevey (Switzerland), brought it in 1780 to to bathe, In this growing region, it is still mainly represented and occupied in Germany a total of 1,101 hectares. In Austria no stocks were recorded.
There are more cultivated areas in Europe in France (2,450 ha), Italy (34 ha), Croatia (21 ha), Portugal (76 ha), Russia (21 ha), Serbia (3,450 ha), Spain (20 ha) and Hungary (1,892 ha). In overseas, there are cultivated areas in Brazil (3 ha), Chile (88 ha), Canada (5 ha) and New Zealand (2 ha). The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 13,214 hectares of vineyards (with the statistics of Kym Anderson under the name Chasselas Rouge extra designated 95 ha). It is thus worldwide varieties ranking on the 55th rank.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)