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French name for oak; see below Oak wood,

Since antiquity, various types of wood from the tree species acacia, eucalyptus, chestnut, cherry, palm, pine and cedar have been used for the production of wine barrels. In ancient Greece, wooden barrels were barely known, but the Greek historian Herodotus (482-425 BC) reports of such in the city Babylon made of palm wood. It is considered pretty certain that the Celts Two to a millennium BC, wood barrels were used for transport and the Romans took over this artifice from them. The most suitable wood for wine storage or the Barrique but that is the oak. It is one of the hardest woods, is tough, very durable and still easy to work. In addition, the way through the wood is denied by the type of annular pores fluids. This is ideal for the construction of vessels of all kinds, especially for barrels.

Affinity of oak and wine

Last but not least, oak wood has a natural affinity for wine. The French have recognized this very early on and have been using it for centuries for the barrel type created in Bordeaux Barrique, Worldwide there are about 300 species of oak, but only three to taxonomic Genus Quercus counting white oak species are used for the wooden barrels. Two of them are growing in Europe. This is the winter oak, holm oak or sessile oak (Quercus sessiliflora or petraea), as well as the Sommereiche or pedunculate oak (Quercus robur or pedunculata). The third is the American white oak (Quercus alba) with numerous species. As a rule, the American oak wood produces stronger astringent and more aromatic wines than the European one. For the sake of completeness, the oak species Quercus suber is mentioned, from the bark of which cork come.

Oak tree and oak barrels

Production of oak barrels

The oak barrels use wood from trees that are at least 80 to 100 years old. After completion, they will be the toasting (Cup burn) subjected. It is differentiated into three groups of wood phenols, which in the Barrique get into the wine. The primary ones are leached out directly, the secondary ones are formed from the wood phenols chemically and microbially, and thirdly there are some which are produced by degradation of the oak wood component lignin arise. Among the most important of these aromatic substances count Eugenole. furfural. lactones. tannins. terpenes and vanillin, Fine-pored woods give these substances slowly...

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