DOCG area for red wine in the Italian region Tuscany, This compared to the "normal" Chianti one level higher wine comes from the classic, already from 1716 from the Medici family Grand Duke Cosimo III. (1642-1723) defined zone, which was then much smaller. In 1932, other areas or municipalities were added and completed the current area. The very forested area covers 70,000 hectares, but only 7,000 hectares are used for viticulture. The suburbs of Florence form the border in the north, the Chianti Mountains in the east, the Pesa and Elsa rivers in the west and Siena in the south. The 70 km long Via Chiantigiana wine route connects the two cities of Florence and Siena. The area includes the municipalities of Castellina, Gaiole, Greve and Radda, as well as some of the municipalities Barberino Val d'Elsa, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Poggibonsi, San Casciano and Tavarnelle Val di Pesa.
The best locations are the middle elevations south of Greve, north of Radda and Castellina and the slopes that extend from Gaiole south to Castelnuovo in the direction of the Arbia valley. Compared to the normal Chianti area, there are numerous hilly areas between 250 and 600 meters above sea level with dry and warm soils. The typical Chianti Classico soil types are Galestro (loose lime marl) and Alberese (weathered sandstone), which do not get too wet even in heavy rain. The Galestro also gave the name to an IGT white wine. The trademark of the area and also the association "Consorzio del Marchio Storico Chianti Classico" is Gallo nero (a black rooster), which indicates a legend about the emergence of the borders in Chianti declining. As with the Chianti, there is also a DOC area Vin Santo del Chianti Classico,
In the past, the Chianti Classico had more and more problems differentiating itself from the "smaller brother" Chianti, the two wines were often confused. That is why the Consorzio issued some norms to manifest the difference. The basic message is that there are two wine categories that differ fundamentally in terms of production methods, qualitative characteristics and environmental conditions, despite certain similarities. The two wines can thus consider themselves independent, even if they flow into the only protected designation of origin Chianti for historical reasons.
The new regulations came into effect after a multi-year transition period from the 2006 harvest. Normal Chianti can no longer be produced in the Chianti Classico area. If the prescribed yield limits or the minimum alcohol content are not complied with, the (previously given) possibility of downgrading to normal Chianti is no longer permitted. The bottling must be carried out within the production area, which is not otherwise prescribed by the Italian wine law for any wine. Marketing may take place no earlier than October 1 of the year following the harvest.
The minimum percentage of Sangiovese was increased from 75% to 80%, including varietal wine is permissible. The proportion of other red varieties may not exceed 20%. Mostly this is Canaiolo Nero, such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot and Syrah, The formerly permitted white varieties Malvasia del Chianti ( Malvasia Bianca Lunga ) and Trebbiano Toscano are now prohibited. The permissible maximum yield applies both per plant with a maximum of three kilograms per vine, and per hectare with 7,500 kilograms (which corresponds to a total amount of 52.5 hectoliters of wine); the maximum must yield is 70%. The alcohol content must be at least 12% vol residual sugar may not exceed 4 g / l. With 12.5% vol and a maturation time of 24 months (of which at least three months in the bottle) it is allowed Riserva call. The best producers only produce riservas in very good years. The best vintages are 1985, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001 and 2004.
A new three-tier quality pyramid was introduced in early 2014. The basis is "Chianti Classico Annata". The middle level "Chianti Classico Riserva" corresponds to the "old" guidelines. New is the top quality "Chianti Classico Gran Selezione" with a ripening period of at least 30 months (including three months in bottle), whereby the grapes must come exclusively from the producer. There are even stricter regulations than for Riserva, these are deep ruby red color, spicy persistent aroma, dry balanced taste, at least 13% vol alcohol, at least 4.5 g / l total acid and at least 26 g / l extract. In addition, this wine is not allowed in the folkloric raffia bottle Fiasco be filled. Retrospective wines from the 2010 vintage could still be declared with the new quality class.
Well-known producers are Antinori, Antica Fattoria dei S. Andrea di Niccolò Machiavelli, Badia a Coltibuono, Bianchi Bandinelli, La Brancaia, Cantine Leonardo da Vinci, Carobbio, Casa Emma, Castellani Spa. Castello Banfi, Castello dei Rampolla, Castello del Trebbio, Castello di Ama, Castello di Brolio (Ricasoli), Castello di Fonterutoli, Castello di Lucignano, Castello di Monsanto, Castello di Monterinaldi, Castello di Querceto, Castello di Verrazzano, Castello di Vicchiomaggio, Cennatoio, Collolungo, Dievole, Donatella Cinelli Colombini, Fattoria Casaloste, Fattoria di Cinciano. Fattoria di Fèlsina, Fattoria Le Fonti, Fattoria Viticcio, Fontodi, Frescobaldi, Guicciardini, Il Mandorlo, Isole e Olena, Istine, La Massa, Le Filigare, Mangiacane, Mannucci Droandi, Melini, Monte Vertine, Nittardi, Ormanni, Paneretta, Panzanello, Podere Casanova, Podere Il Palazzino, Podere Perseto, Quercia al Poggio, Ricasoli, Riecine, Rignana, Ruffino. San Leonino - Tenimenti Angelini, Tenuta Fontodi, Tenuta di Lilliano, Terre di Melazzano, Valiano, Vecchie Terre di Montefili, Vigna al Sole, Villa Branca, Villa Cafaggio, Villa Calcinaia, Villa Casale, Villa Montepaldi.