The first vines in this South America In 1551, the Spanish Conqistador Don Francisco de Aguirre de Meneses (1507-1581) planted land in the city of La Serena (Coquimbo), founded in 1543. Below that was out Spain originating Criolla Chica ( Listán Prieto ), which is referred to here as País or Negra Antigua (see under Criolla ). A few years later, his son-in-law Juan Jufré de Loayza (1516-1578) led in the area near Santiago Maule Vines one. It got cheaper mass wine generated and after Peru and Mexico shipped. The English privateer Francis Drake (1540-1596) hijacked a ship in 1578, the 1,770 wineskins from Chile to Peru. Chile increasingly became a competitor for European wines. The Spanish royal family therefore banned the planting of further vines in 1620 to protect Spain's wine trade with America. In 1830, the government set up the Quinta Normal agricultural testing station. The French naturalist Claudio Gay (1800-1873) introduced European varieties. By 1850 there were 70 different ones.
Bertrand Silvestre Ochagavia Echazareta brought noble grape varieties from Bordeaux for the first time in 1851, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot. Chile started to export wine again and at the Paris World's Fair in 1889 there was even a Grand Prix for Chilean wine. In 1938 the government prohibitive Measures decided. The creation of new vineyards was prohibited, wine production was limited to a maximum of 60 liters per citizen and the taxes on wine to combat alcohol abuse were drastically increased. This led to stagnation in viticulture. The ban on planting was only lifted again in 1974. This led to a great boom in viticulture, which Miguel Torres Carbó (1909-1991), the 1979 winery at Curicó Miguel Torres founded, had the largest share. This was the first in Chile to carry stainless steel tanks and small ones Barriques on.
From 1985, new vineyards were created on a large scale and European quality wine grape varieties imported. Numerous joint ventures with California, French and German partners subsequently led to decisive quality improvements. In 2012 the vineyards covered a total of 206.00 hectares. This puts Chile in 10th place in the global ranking (see under Wine production volumes ). However, the wine grapes make up only around half of which 12.55 million hectoliters of wine were made. The rest is used for the production of table grapes, as the base wine for the brandy Pisco and other products.
Due to the special geographical location of the extremely elongated country (west of the Pacific, east of the protective Andes), the phylloxera never gain a foothold there. It is believed that through traditional artificial irrigation (especially in the north, where there is hardly any rain) in the form of flooding the vineyards, the few copies of this pest are destroyed again and again. The Incas had already created an extensive network of canals with which 1.2 million hectares of land were irrigated. That is why there are still large vineyards in Chile with unrefined vines. The Blend 2010 (Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Chilean name||hectare|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||-||4228|
|Listán Prieto||red||Negra Antigua, País, Uva Negra, Viña Negra||3869|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||White||Moscatel de Alejandria||1090|
|mazuelo||red||Bovale Grande, Carignan||477|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||-||316|
|Pedro Giménez||White||Pedro Jiménez||118|
|Lacrima Christi?||red||please refer Lacrima||85|
|Moscatel Rosada||pink||Moscatel Rosado||70|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||58|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||37|
|Goldmuskateller (Moscato Giallo)||White||Moscatel Amarilla||25|
|Torrontés Sanjuanino||White||Moscatel de Austria||4|
The vineyards are mainly located at the western foot of the Andes in high-lying river valleys at 600 to 1,000 meters above sea level. The majority of it lies in the huge Valle Central (Cenral Valley), which is important for viticulture. They run along the mountain range as a narrow band with a total length of 1,300 kilometers. In many, especially the northern areas, there is an artificial one irrigation required. The vintage starts in mid-February. Due to the large north-south extension, there are different climate zones in Chile. The five regions with their wine growing areas in order from north to south are:
ATACAMA In an extremely arid desert area Atacama grapes are grown, but they do not play a role in the production of wine.
The northernmost wine region is in the three areas of Choapa , Elqui and Limari divided. Here are around 20,000 hectares of vineyards table grapes and the brandy Pisco produced. The vineyards for wine production cover around 2,300 hectares.
The region is 100 kilometers north of Santiago and covers around 5,000 hectares. It is in the three areas of Aconcagua , Casablanca such as San Antonio divided.
The 400 km long valley between the Andes and the coast is the main wine-growing area with around 90,000 hectares of vineyards. On another 50,000 hectares table grapes grown. The region is north to south in the four areas Maipo; Rapel (with sub-areas Cachapoal and Colchagua ); Curicó (with subareas Teno and Lontué) as well Maule (with subareas Claro, Loncomilla and Tutuvén).
The southernmost region comprises around 14,000 hectares of vineyards. It is from north to south in the three areas Itata. Bío-Bío and Malleco structured. There is more rain and less sun here with simpler wines than in the northern areas. Smaller autonomous vineyards are even further south.
There are only around 100 wineries, some of which are huge. A property with “only” 100 hectares is considered small. Many wineries also buy grapes. More and more producers operate according to the rules of the Organic (organic) viticulture, The best-known Chilean wineries include, among others Almaviva. Canepa. Carmen. Carta Vieja. Concha y Toro. Errázuriz (Caliterra, Arboleda), Lapostolle. Los Vascos. Miguel Torres ( Torres ) Montes. San Pedro. Santa Inés. Santa Monica. Santa Rita. Tarapacá. Terra Noble. Undurraga. Valdivieso. Veramonte and Viu Manent, Other companies are listed in each of the areas.
In 1995, a new (relatively simple and permissive) wine law came into force that precisely defines the areas where grapes are grown. If a wine comes from one of these areas, it can be on the label received a Denominación de Origen, but it is more a designation of origin than proof of quality. The quality wines must have an alcohol content of at least 11.5% vol (exception is the bio-bio area with only 10.5% vol). On enrich The must with sugar is prohibited, however leavening (Acidification) allowed.
12 white and 13 red varieties may be listed on the label (not e.g. the indigenous País) if the wine is made from at least 75% of this variety, but this does not have to be done. This 75% also applies to the vintage. The rest may also be grapes or wines from outside Chile. The names Reserva, Gran Reserva, Reserva Especial, Reserva Privada, Gran Vino, Selección and Superior, which are used on the label, can be used in any way and are not subject to any regulations. Under Pisco (Flying bird) is understood to mean the Chilean brandies from the region of the same name from the Zona Pisquera, which have to be produced under special conditions.