The first vines in this South America In 1551, the Spanish Conqistador Don Francisco de Aguirre de Meneses (1507-1581) planted land in La Serena (Coquimbo), founded in 1543. Underneath it was off Spain originating Criolla Chica ( Listán Prieto ), which is referred to here as País or Negra Antigua (see Criolla ). A few years later, his son-in-law Juan Jufré de Loayza (1516-1578) was at Santiago in the area Maule Vines. It became cheaper mass wine generated and after Peru and Mexico shipped. The English buccaneer Francis Drake (1540-1596) hijacked a ship in 1578, the 1,770 wineskins from Chile to Peru. Chile became increasingly a competitor for European wines. Therefore, the Spanish royal family banned the planting of more vines in 1620 to protect Spain's wine trade with America. In 1830, the government built the Agricultural Pilot Station Quinta Normal. The French naturalist Claudio Gay (1800-1873) introduced European varieties. By 1850, there were already 70 different.
Bertrand Silvestre Ochagavia Echazareta brought in 1851 for the first time noble grape varieties from the Bordeaux, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot. Chile started to export wine again and at the Paris World Fair in 1889 there was even a Grand Prix for a Chilean wine. In 1938 were from the government prohibitive Measures decided. The creation of new vineyards was banned, the wine production limited to a maximum of 60 liters per citizen and the taxes on wine for the purpose of combating alcohol abuse drastically increased. This led to a stagnation of viticulture. The planting ban was lifted until 1974 again. As a result, there was a big boom in viticulture, which Miguel Torres Carbó (1909-1991), who in 1979 at Curicó the winery Miguel Torres founded, had the largest share. This led first in Chile stainless steel tanks and small Barriques on.
Beginning in 1985, large vineyards were created and European quality wine grape varieties were imported. Numerous joint ventures with Californian, French and German partners resulted in decisive quality improvements. In 2012, the vineyards total 206,000 hectares. Chile ranks 10th in the world ranking (see below) Wine production volumes ). But the wine grapes make up only about half, of which 12.55 million hectoliters of wine were pressed. The rest is used for the production of table grapes, as a base wine for the brandy Pisco and other products.
Due to the special geographical position of the extremely elongated country (west of the Pacific, east of the protective Andes), the phylloxera never get a foothold there. It is believed that by the traditional artificial irrigation (especially in the north, where hardly any rain falls) in the form of a flooding of the vineyards the few copies of this pest are destroyed again and again. Even the Incas had created an extensive network of canals that irrigated 1.2 million hectares of land. Therefore, there are still large vineyards in Chile today with unrefined vines. The Blend 2010 (Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or Chilean name||hectare|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||-||4228|
|Listán Prieto||red||Negra Antigua, Pais, Uva Negra, Viña Negra||3869|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||White||Moscatel de Alejandría||1090|
|mazuelo||red||Bovale Grande, Carignan||477|
|TorrontÃ © Riojano||White||-||425|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||-||316|
|Pedro Giménez||White||Pedro Jiménez||118|
|Lacrima Christi?||red||please refer Lacrima||85|
|Moscatel Rosada||pink||Moscatel Rosado||70|
|Tribidrag / Zinfandel||red||-||58|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||37|
|Goldmuskateller (Moscato Giallo)||White||Moscatel Amarilla||25|
|Torrontés Sanjuanino||White||Moscatel de Austria||4|
The vineyards are located mainly on the western foot of the Andes in high-altitude river valleys at 600 to 1,000 meters above sea level. The vast majority of it is in the vast and important for viticulture Valle Central (Cenral Valley). They stretch along the mountain range as a narrow band with a total length of 1,300 kilometers. In many, especially the more northerly areas is an artificial irrigation required. The vintage starts from mid-February. Due to the large north-south extent, there are different climatic zones in Chile. The five regions with their wine-growing areas in the order from north to south are:
ATACAMA In the extremely arid desert area Atacama grapes are grown, but they do not play a role in the production of wine.
The northernmost winegrowing region is in the three areas Choapa , Elqui and Limarí structured. Here are on about 20,000 hectares of vineyards table grapes and the brandy Pisco produced. The vineyards cover around 2,300 hectares.
The region is located 100 kilometers north of Santiago and covers approximately 5,000 hectares. She is in the three Aconcagua areas, Casablanca such as San Antonio divided.
The 400-kilometer long valley between the Andes and coast is the main wine-growing area with about 90,000 hectares of vineyards. On another approximately 50,000 hectares will be table grapes grown. The region is north to south in the four areas Maipo; Rapel (with subregions Cachapoal and Colchagua ); Curicó (with sub-sections Teno and Lontué) as well Maule (subdivisions Claro, Loncomilla and Tutuvén) structured.
The southernmost region covers about 14,000 hectares of vineyards. It is from north to south in the three areas Itata. Bío-Bío and Malleco articulated. There is more rain and less sunshine with easier wines than in the more northerly areas. Smaller autonomous vineyards are even further south.
There are only about 100 wineries, but sometimes with huge dimensions. An estate with "only" 100 hectares is considered small. Many wineries also buy grapes. More and more producers are farming according to the rules of the Organic (organic) viticulture, Among the most famous Chilean wineries include, among others Almaviva. Canepa. Carmen. Carta Vieja. Concha y Toro. Errázuriz (Caliterra, Arboleda), Lapostolle. Los Vascos. Miguel Torres ( Torres ) Montes. San Pedro. Santa Inés. Santa Monica. Santa Rita. Tarapacá. Terra Noble. Undurraga. Valdivieso. Veramonte and Viu Manent, Other companies are listed in the respective areas.
In 1995, a new (relatively simple and permissive) wine law came into force, which defines the grape growing areas. If a wine comes from one of these areas, it can be on the label obtained a Denominación de Origen, but rather origin designation as proof of quality. The quality wines must have at least 11.5% vol alcohol content (except with special permission is the Bío-Bío area with only 10.5% vol). On enrich of must with sugar is prohibited, however leavening (Acidification) allowed.
12 white and 13 red varieties may be mentioned on the label (not, for example, the autochthone País) if the wine is made from at least 75% of this variety, but this does not have to be done. These 75% are also valid for the vintage. The rest may also be grapes or wines of origin outside of Chile. Reserva, Gran Reserva, Reserva Especial, Reserva Privada, Gran Vino, Selección and Superior can all be used freely and are not subject to any regulations. Under Pisco (Flying bird) are the Chilean spirits from the same region from the Zona Pisquera understood, which must be produced according to special conditions.