Term for the separation of a substance mixture by separation into its individual components. The method is particularly suitable for those substances that are chemically very similar and difficult to separate. The principle was first described in 1901 by the Russian botanist Mikhail S. Tswett and described by him in 1906 as chromatography (dt color recording). Today, this is an indispensable method for the isolation of substances, as well as for the identification and quantification of the ingredients of mixtures.
There are different procedures. In food chemistry, medicine, environmental analysis and biology, gas chromatography (GC), discovered in 1952 by SC James and A. Martin, is favored. The method is suitable for vaporizable (liquid) and gaseous substances. The separation is based on the different boiling points of the substances. The video (click to view) shows the process.
Source video and graphics: TheSimpleClub GmbH
A special form of chromatography is HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), in German high-performance liquid chromatography. Here you can not only separate substances, but also identify and quantify them via defined standards, that is, determine the exact concentration. In contrast to gas chromatography, which is a very good separation method for vaporizable substances, non-volatile substances can also be analyzed by HPLC. Thus, for example, in wines for American vines typical anthocyanin Malvidin-3,5-diglucoside can be determined.
through Ion exchange chromatography also become individual flavorings, the components of the total extract and the sulfur dioxide certainly. Also wine faults causing substances like that for the corked responsible trichloroanisole (TCA) and the Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAK) can be determined with it. The quantities are in ppm or g / l.
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