Species-rich family (Auchenorrhyncha) of insects which, because of the characteristic tone, are also called "chirping". Most of the approximately 40,000 species are very noticeably colored, but still camouflage specialists. All have a suction tube and a suction pump for food intake, which takes place by the piercing and sucking out of certain plant parts. Most species are restricted or specialized to very specific nutrient plants. The body length is usually between 2 and 40 millimeters, with few types up to 70 millimeters. Due to their jumping ability (hence leafhoppers, engl. Leafhoppers) they are often with locusts (Grasshoppers, English grasshoppers) confused, but with whom they are not related. They can reach a height of up to 70 centimeters from a standing position, in comparison a human would have to jump 200 meters.
Many so-called phloem-sucking cicadas are plant pests. The pests pierce the leaf veins and suck the sugary juice of the phloem Xylem on. This will be dangerous phytoplasmas and virus then cause very dangerous vine diseases. A trace of suction or typical Blattschadbild of the blood cicada can be seen at the bottom right (is similar to other cicada species).
The following cicadas can occur on grapevines and lead to the mentioned damages:
The American Rebzikade (Scaphoideus titanus) causes Flavescence dorée (Golden yellow yellowing). The buffalo hawk (Strictocephala bisionia) came from North America at the end of the 19th century and has proliferated in Europe. Their eggs overwinter in shoots of the vine. The juveniles (nymphs) develop over five stages to full-grown cicadas. These lay their eggs on annual shoots. This leads to corked beads or constrictions and thus to the interruption of the sap flow which in turn yellowing leaves similar to Flavescence dorée. However, control measures are not required.
The blood cicada or foamy cicada (Cercopis vulnerata) sucks on the leaves, causing brown spots. However, these hardly cause damage, so that an active fight is unnecessary. The glass winged cicada (Hyalesthes obsoletus) is the transmitter of the Yellowing disease of the type Stolbur. This is called due to the typical damage pattern also as black wood disease.
The cicada species Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) causes Pierce Disease, The Green Vetch (Empoasca vitis) does not transmit viruses. The berries are polluted by the sugar-rich excrements (honeydew), which are partly used by other insects as food. In heavy infestation, the leaves turn yellow to brown and curl up; the symptoms are similar to that Leaf roll disease,
The oriental cicada (Orientus ishidae) also causes Flavescence dorée (Golden yellow yellowing). The Spitzkopzikade is still insufficiently researched; a relationship with the grapevine is unknown.
Americ. Rebzikade: From Lamiot - Eig. Plant, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Buffalo ikat: André Mégroz www.insects.ch
Blood-cicada: André Mégroz www.insects.ch
Glass Wing Cicada: By Michael F. Schoenitzer, CC-BY-SA 4.0 , Link
Glassy-Winged-Sharpshooter: By Reyes Garcia III, link
Green Vinegar : PIXABAY - over a million free images
Orient Cicada: Michael Stemmer www.naturraum-stux.de
Pierce disease: © enbiotech srl
Flavescence dorée: AGES Vienna