Species-rich family (Auchenorrhyncha) from insects, which are also called “chirping” because of the characteristic tone. Most of the around 40,000 species are very strikingly colored, but are still camouflage specialists. All have a suction proboscis and a suction pump for food intake, which is done by piercing and sucking out certain parts of the plant. Most species are restricted or specialized to very specific nutrient plants. The body length is usually between 2 and 40 millimeters, with a few species up to 70 millimeters. Because of their ability to jump (therefore also leaf hoppers) they are often with locusts (Grasshoppers), with whom they are not related. You can jump from a standing position to a height of 70 centimeters, in comparison a person would have to jump 200 meters.
Many so-called phloem-sucking cicadas are plant pests. The pests prick the leaf veins and suck in the sugary juice of the phloem in the Xylem on. Doing so will be dangerous phytoplasmas and virus transmitted, which then cause very dangerous vine diseases. A suction trace or typical leaf damage from the leafhopper can be seen at the bottom right (similar to other leafhopper species).
The following cicada species can occur on grapevines and lead to the damage mentioned:
The American vine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) causes Flavescence doree (Golden yellow yellowing). The buffalo leafhopper or humpback chirp (Strictocephala bisionia) came from North America at the end of the 19th century and has increased considerably in Europe. Their eggs hibernate in the branches of the vines. The young animals (nymphs) develop into mature cicadas over five stages. These lay their eggs on annual shoots. This leads to corked beads or constrictions and thus to an interruption of the juice flow, which in turn leads to yellowing of leaves similar to Flavescence dorée. Control measures are not necessary.
The leafhopper or foam leafhopper (Cercopis vulnerata) sucks on the leaves, which causes brown spots. However, these hardly cause any damage, so that there is no need to actively combat them. The glass winged cicada (Hyalesthes obsoletus) is the carrier of the Yellowing disease Stolbur type. This is also known as black wood disease due to the typical damage pattern.
The cicada species Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) causes Pierce Disease, The green vine leafhopper (Empoasca vitis) does not transmit viruses. The berries are contaminated by the sugar-rich excrement (honeydew), some of which serve as food for other insects. In the case of heavy infestation, the leaves turn yellow to brown and curl up; the symptoms are similar to that Leaf roll disease,
The oriental leafhopper (Orientus ishidae) also causes Flavescence doree (Golden yellow yellowing). The Spitzkopzikade is still insufficiently researched; a relationship to the vine is not known.
Americ. Vine leafhopper : From Lamiot - Eig. Work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , link
Buffalo cicada: André Mégroz www.insects.ch
Blood cicada: André Mégroz www.insects.ch
Glass wing cicada: By Michael F. Schönitzer, CC-BY-SA 4.0 , Link
Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter: By Reyes Garcia III, Link
Green vine leafhopper : PIXABAY - over a million free images
Oriental cicada: Michael Stemmer www.naturraum-stux.de
Pierce disease: © enbiotech srl
Flavescence dorée: AGES Vienna