The Catholic order of monks went out of the order as a reform movement Benedictine and has its origin in French Burgundy, He was founded in 1098 by Robert de Molesme (1029-1111) in the Cîteaux monastery north of Beaune founded. As a significant distinction, the monks wear white instead of black Benedictine robes. Saint Bernhard de Clairvaux (1090-1153) founded the Clairvaux monastery in 1115 and issued a new order. As soon as a Cistercian monastery counted 60 monks, twelve of them had to move out and found a new monastery, which led to a widespread spread of the order.
This led to an enormous expansion, because in 1153 there were already 400 abbeys and 100 years later 2,000 Cistercian and 1,400 nunneries across Europe. The order specialized in exemplary soil management. The monks experimented perfectionistly with various soil types, such as Rebschnitt-. finishing and Vinification techniques, Her greatest achievement was the conception of the Cru respectively. Terroir-thought, The experience benefited all countries where the order was active.
In addition to the Benedictines and Carthusians they did crucial development work in European viticulture. The Duke of Burgundy bestowed the order on Christmas Day in 1098 Meursault their first vineyard. Through foundation, purchase, lease and exchange, the order increased its ownership of vineyards in Burgundy in many appellations famous today; for example in chablis (where the monks are said to have been the first to plant the Chardonnay), Aloxe-Corton. Pommard and Volnay, One of the most famous of these is today's Grand Cru location Clos de Vougeot in the Côte de Nuits area with 50 hectares of vineyards, which they used as an experimental laboratory, so to speak. It is said that they even "tasted the ground" here. This vineyard was surrounded by the monks in 1330 with a high wall that can still be seen today. In 1551 they built the Château de Vougeot in this area, where the wine brotherhood is today Confrérie des Chevaliers du Tastevin holds its annual meeting.
Over 200 branches were established on the Rhine between Worms and Cologne in just a hundred years. One of the most famous monasteries is that founded in 1136 Eberbach in the Rheingau with the famous Steinberg in Hattenheim. In the 12th and 13th centuries, this monastery with its offshoots was the largest wine-growing company in the world. First, the monks planted vines brought from Burgundy, among them were Noirien and Fromenteau, the ancestors of the Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris. The name "Gray Monk" for the Pinot Gris comes from the fact that they introduced this vine. They also played a significant role in cultivating the Riesling, They founded it in 1137 Pforta Monastery near Naumburg in today's Saale-Unstrut region. The famous terraced vineyard Dézaley over Lake Geneva in the Swiss canton Vaud was created in 1142 with extreme effort.
The winery, one of the oldest in Austria Freut Thallern at Gumpoldskirchen was founded in 1141 by the Cistercians of the Heiligenkreuz Abbey and has been operated by them until today. In 1232 Kutjevo was built in what is today Croatia founded a wine cellar that still exists today. The monks also had vineyards in the Hungarian region of Tokaj-Hegyalja (see below Tokaj ). Because of the great services to viticulture in the Rheingau, the new breed received Arnsburger their name after the Cistercian monastery in Arnsburg near Gießen. In the 19th century, the Cistercians lost most of their property, today they are primarily involved in pastoral care and teaching. The order saw a special gift from God and a wine Quote read: Qui bon vin boit, Dieu voit (if you pour good, you see God in wine).