Alcoholic mixed drink, over the name origin of which there are a number of different versions. The best known derives from cockfighting, which was popular in the southern United States in the mid-19th century. The tail feathers of the inferior rooster were torn out and handed over to the owner of the winner. The victory and the trophy won were then sealed with a drink “on the cock's tail”. Later the drink was called cocktail for short. A second version dates from the US War of Independence in 1777. The innkeeper Betsy Flanagan in New England preferred to host soldiers of the rebels. One evening she mixed a drink from fruit juice and rum which she decorated with a feather. This had previously been the showpiece of a British rooster. A young French rebel officer honors the composition with the words: Vive le coq's tail! (Long live the cock tail).
A third version is based on drinks that are not mixed, but consist of different-colored liqueurs layered on top of each other (pousse cafés). This gives a picture similar to the cock tail. A fourth version is based on that whiskey and absinthe mixed drink "Sazerac", which was served in New Orleans in "Coquetiers" (French for egg cups). A cockle made it into a cocktail. A fifth version tells of a bar somewhere in the United States, which included a hollow ceramic tap. At the end of the day, the bartender poured any remaining drinks through an opening into the tap. The next day he sold the mixture at a special price by tapping it out of the tap's tail. As a result, more and more people ordered a cocktail that would soon be named this. And a sixth version says that the cocktail glass was originally garnished with a cock feather.
It is much easier than the origin of the name to understand the reasons why these mixed drinks became popular in the USA. The distilled in the 19th century spirits predominantly had a very simple (primitive) quality standard. Mostly it was high-proof, hard and very bitter tasting grain schnapps (whiskey). They were mostly drunk very young without maturation and tasted accordingly. Therefore, attempts were made to improve the taste by sweetening with honey or sugar, adding aromatic ingredients and fruits. The immigrants from many European countries brought their recipes for alcoholic beverages with them. Various mixes were experimented with in the bars and inns. Especially in the American era prohibition (1920 to 1933), the cocktails were extremely popular because the illegally produced spirits were of the cheapest quality and could only be enjoyed through the added ingredients. Over the years, countless mixed drinks have emerged, especially in the USA. In Europe, they quickly became popular after the Second World War through hotel bars and American bars.
The cocktail, which is usually served ice cold, consists of a spirit (Cynar, gin. rum. tequila. brandy. whiskey. vodka ) Wine ( champagne. sparkling wine. sherry. port wine. wormwood ), aromatic bitters or liqueurs (Angostura, Campari. Cassis, Fernet Branca, Pernod ), Pieces of fruit and fruit juices, as well as ice cubes. The ingredients are mixed in a shaker (shaking) or in a mixing glass (short mixing or stirring), strained using a strainer (to retain fruit pieces and ice cubes) and garnished in the glass after pouring (lemons, olives, cherries). A distinction is made roughly into the main groups of short drinks with a small amount of liquid and high alcohol content, as well as long drinks with through Mineral water, Juices and soft drinks with an extended amount of liquid. The latter group includes, for example Cola pint made from 50% cola and wine.
There are countless variants, which are grouped as follows: punch. Champagne cocktail, Cobbler (fruit, mineral water, wine or sparkling wine), Collins (lemon juice, soda), Cooler, Crusta (glass with sugar rim), eggnogg (with milk, eggs), fizz (with soda, mineral water), flip (with egg yolk), frappé (with ice cream), mulled wine. grog (Hot drink with rum), highball (long drink with a lot of soda), hot drink (e.g. Irish coffee), pousse café (several layers on top of each other), shooter (small mixed drink served in a glass), sour (spirits and lemon juice) and Tropical drink. The best known cocktails include the Martini Cocktail who is not with the same name wormwood can be confused, as well as the Manhattan, Non-alcoholic mixed drinks are called "mocktails", which results from "cocktail" and "to mock" (imitate, pretend). A further distinction is made in certain cocktails in appetizers (before eating) and digestives (after eating).
There are various glass shapes for cocktails. As a rule, the cocktail bowl is used, a long-stemmed, curved bowl that used to be the usual one Champagne bowl (Sparkling wine) resembles. The shell has a smaller filling capacity for about 100 mg. A special shape is the funnel-shaped Martini glass, also called "Martinischale", "Martinikelch" or "Cocktailspitz". In addition, there are different forms for the individual cocktail groups or alcoholics used. For example Flûte (Champagne flute), hurricane glass, snifter. glass of punch, Sherry glass ( Catavino ) or wine glasses,