Decomposition product of organic matter of predominantly vegetable waste such as grass, leaves, mulch (mostly wood waste such as branches, twigs, bark), fruit, straw, peat, rape and weeds, and possibly also animal waste in the form of earth-like substance. Animal excreta such as manure, manure or manure are added (if at all) in pre-composted form.
As a rule, however, these animal wastes are used as their own fertilizers. The name is derived from the Latin "componere" (compound). By composting or rotting (rotting) is meant the controlled decomposition of organic material by microorganisms ( seaweed. bacteria. mushrooms ) and microorganisms (woodlice, worms, etc.) under supply of oxygen, The structural components (wood, cellulose etc.) and ingredients (sugars) of the plants are degraded, which in turn serve other organisms as food. In agriculture and viticulture, composting is used in a targeted manner to convert organic substances quickly and in a controlled manner and for the fertilization of the soil.
The resulting processes of humification and mineralization are similar to the formation of humus in the ground. The process takes one to two years. The alternative admixture of rock flour increases the nutrient content. The complex chemical processes have not yet been completely clarified. It is believed that in addition to the humus formation and fertilization effect other positive effects for soil and plant as the strengthening of plant's own defenses against pests are achieved. The compost (humus) is introduced into the vineyard soil. The recirculated during composting in their individual components biomass is then higher plants in the form of various nutrient to disposal. Above all, these are potassium. calcium (Lime), phosphorus and nitrogen but in smaller quantities also all other elements.
Composting in viticulture is a common measure in the context of Biological crop protection and its principles Integrated pest management, which in turn is part of the Organic (organic) viticulture and its special forms such as B. Biodynamic viticulture are.
All measures and aids in the vineyard can be found under Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,