Designation for the decomposition product (therefore also rotting) of organic substances of mainly vegetable waste such as grass, leaves, mulch (mainly wood waste such as branches, twigs, bark), fruit, straw, peat, pomace and weeds, and possibly also animal waste in the form of earth-like substances. Animal excrement products such as manure, slurry or stable manure are added (if at all) in pre-composted form. As a rule, however, these animal waste products are used as own fertilizers. Composting or rotting (rotting) is the controlled decomposition of organic material by micro-organisms(algae, bacteria, fungi) and micro-organisms (woodlice, worms, etc.) with the addition of oxygen. The structural components (such as cellulose etc.) and constituents (such as sugar) of the plants are decomposed. Some of the intermediate products resulting from the decomposition are converted into humus. The admixture of rock flour, sometimes used as an alternative, increases the nutrient content.
In agriculture, composting is used in a targeted manner to convert organic substances quickly and in a controlled form and to use them for fertilising the soil. Fresh compost should be turned over once after three to six months in order to be able to decompose for a few more months. Depending on the source material, the compost can be considered mature after about one year and can be used after screening. In addition to the formation of humus and fertilization, other positive effects for soil and plants are achieved, such as strengthening the plant's own defences against pests.
The picture shows two annually alternating compost heaps - the one on the right is ripe and is being put into the soil. The biomass is then available in the form of various water-soluble mineral nutrients. These are nitrogen compounds such as nitrates and ammonium salts, phosphates, calcium, potassium and magnesium compounds, as well as other elements. Composting in viticulture is a common measure in biological plant protection or integrated plant protection, which in turn are part of biological (organic) viticulture and its special forms such as biodynamic viticulture.
All measures and aids in the vineyard can be found under vineyard care. Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are included under vinification. Comprehensive wine law information can be found under the keyword wine law.