Various procedures to grape or Wine concentrate through withdrawal of certain substances. This is usually done by reducing the pure water content. The oldest form is already in the antiquity applied drying the grapes, Today this is due to a late vintage and / or drying on straw mats / reeds and longer hanging of the grapes on racks achieved (see under Trockenbeerenauslese and Recioto ). In the osmosis (Reverse osmosis, osmotic distillation ), different molecular sizes of liquids or of substances contained therein are exploited.
Other possibilities of concentration are the exploitation of different boiling or freezing points. Low pressure and low temperature evaporators are used. This will be the sugar concentrated, but also withdrawn volatile flavors. An improved technique is the vacuum concentration because water evaporates at lower air pressure at as low as 30 ° C (and less), which is not much higher than a conventional fermentation temperature. As a result, significantly fewer flavors are lost. A relatively new process is Spinning Cone Column, These techniques are used inter alia in the production of RTK applied.
The freezing concentration (French cryoextraction) mimics the natural processes involved in the production of Eiswein after. The whole grapes are frozen to minus 6 ° C. First, the water freezes and leaves the remaining ingredients in concentrated form. The grapes are then pressed, leaving only the highly concentrated, sugar-rich extract. The quality of real ice wines is not achieved and this (especially in the New world and in the French area Sauterne applied) technique is not undisputed.
In any case, must concentration is one of the many forms of fortification (alcohol elevation) and is subject to the relevant provisions. Under the keyword enrich are the EU wine legislation. Concentration came about as a result of the wine trade agreement signed at the end of 2005 USA and European Union in the center of interest.
Also as concentration one can apply for the first time in France (Bordeaux, burgundy), as saignée (bleed) denote designated method in which at the maceration a certain proportion of the grape must have been deducted, and that part is brighter Rose and the other part as extract rich red wine is produced. Similar color-weak wines are the types of wine Weißherbst (Germany), Gleichgepreßter (Austria) and Süßdruck (Switzerland). The remaining portion of must results in corresponding color and extract rich red wines.
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the various wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,