The red grape variety comes from the United States, Synonyms are Bergerac, Bull's Seedling, Concord Crni, Corin, Cornin, Dalmadin, Fehérhatu, Fekete Noah, Furmin Noir, Gorin, Gurin, Jurka, Kék Olasz, Koncord, Konkordi, Konkordia, Nyarfalevelü, Nyarlevelü, Olasz Kékat, Ripadella, Ripadella, Ripadella, Ripadella Ripertella and Ripotella. The last four synonyms refer to the variety previously considered to be independent Ripatella, It was only in 2016 DNA analysis in Geisenheim (Rheingau) found that this is genetically identical to the Concord. The exact origin of the variety was only in 2016 on Julius Kühn Institute (Geilweilerhof) through DNA analysis determined. It comes from a cross between Catawba (Vitis labrusca x Sémillon ) x Vitis labrusca,
The Concord was the result of ten years of elaborate selection. Ephraim Wales, known as the "Father of the Concord Grape" Bull (1806-1895) set up in the city of Concord in 1843 Massachusetts the cores one wild grape and increased it to 22,000 cuttings, From there he chose a single vine until 1849. Nearby was a Catawba vine that was always thought to be a parent. He further increased and selected them. The final result was presented in 1853, about which there is even the historical photograph shown below. Bull then named the variety in 1854 after the nearby town of Concord. From the 1860s, it was then widely used as the "Grape of the Millions" in the northeastern United States.
The first (pasteurized) grape juice Concord grapes were grown by a certain Dr. Thomas Bramwell Welch produced in 1869, who for this reason is considered the founder of the later expanding US fruit juice industry. His son Dr. Charles Edgar Welch (1852-1926) produced a grape jam and named it Grapelade, Because of their excellent resistance against the phylloxera At the beginning of the phylloxera disaster in the last third of the 19th century, the grape variety was grown on a large scale in Europe, especially France, and quickly became popular. A description from 1881 at a congress in Bordeaux even rates the wine made from Concord as “delicious in taste with extremely charming Foxton ". But the phylloxera problem could not be solved with the Concord either.
The importance of the vine proves that 75% of all grapes in the eastern United States come from the Concord. in the VIVC varietals catalog The Geilweilerhof lists well over a hundred varieties. These are e.g. B. Adelaide. Beauty of Minnesota. beta. Black Eagle. Black Defiance. Challenge. Concord Seedless. Conquistador. Cottage. Dutchess. Gill Wylie. Kentucky. Monroe. Moore's Diamond. Niagara. Oberon. triumph and Woodruff, There are also numerous openly bloomed Concord seedlings where paternity is unknown. These are for example Adeline. Capital. Chautauqua. Eaton. ester. Golden Concord. Horns. Jumbo Red. King. Lexington. Magnate. Moore Early. Sunbelt. Urbana (1), Victoria (3) Witt. Yonkers, On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the selection, the exhibition "The Concord Grape: An American Classic" was opened in the Concord Museum in 1999.
The early ripening, productive vine is sensitive to fungal diseases, It is very susceptible to eutypa dieback. black rot and Black spots disease and a little less for the wrong ones mildew. anthracnose and Botrytis, Due to their resistance to frost it is particularly suitable for cooler areas. It produces red wines of moderate alcohol content with a pronounced Foxton, Therefore, it has only meaning for sweet wine. sparkling wine. table grapes. grape juice and jam. Also kosher wine is won from it.
In the United States, Concord occupied a total of 8,421 hectares of vineyards in 2010 and is particularly widespread here in the east. It's there in the States Illinois. Indiana. Michigan. Missouri. new York (with ~ 8,000 ha), Ohio and Pennsylvania represented. There were further stocks in 2010 in Brazil (3,543 ha), Japan. Canada (252 ha), Peru and Uruguay (22 ha). In Austria (Burgenland) becomes Concord for the local specialty Uhudler used. The variety occupied a total of 12,238 hectares of vineyards worldwide in 2010. Compared to 1990 with 30,513 hectares at the time, there was a strong reduction. It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 59.
Top left: By Wolfgang Lendl - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Top right: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)
Bottom left : DeadFred Genealogy Photo Archive
Bottom right: By unknown, PD-US , Link