Device (also corkscrew or graft puller) for removing the cork from the bottle neck. The cork became the most common bottle stopper in Europe from the middle of the 17th century. Initially, the corks were not completely pushed into the bottle neck, making removal a little easier. The first primitive devices were small, pointed ice spikes, with which the cork was often removed piece by piece. The T-corkscrew named after the shape is the oldest and most common variant and only consists of a spiral that is attached to the cross handle. The corkscrew was first mentioned in 1681, the English term "corkscrew" was coined around 1720. Until then, "Worm" (worm) or "Bottlescrew" was also used. If the spiral has a so-called “soul” as in the picture on the right (so that a match fits into the inner winding), this is called a helix. The soul prevents the cork from crumbling.
In the second half of the eighteenth century there were the first bell corkscrews in which the process of pulling was gently supported using a threaded rod. The Englishman Samuel Hershaw filed his patent in 1795. A small disc located above the spiral stopped the screwing movement of the corkscrew into the cork and set the cork in rotation. The reduced friction of the cork on the bottle neck allows the cork to be pulled gently. An improved version was developed in 1802 by his compatriot Edward Thomason. His patent continued the turning movements of screwing in and initiated the pulling process via a second, counter-rotating shaft thread. In the wooden variant shown on the right, the spindle is turned into the cork with the upper cross handle. When it is fully screwed in, the cork is pulled out through the thread using the lower cross handle.
There are countless variants of the scissor corkscrew (also joint, link or accordion corkscrew). The first of its kind was patented in England in 1884 by Marshall Arthur Wier. Improved models made of nickel-plated steel or brass were first developed in 1903 by compatriot Henry David Armstrong and finally a model patented in 1928 by Frenchman Marie Jules Léon Joseph Bart under the brand name Zig-Zag corkscrew . It consists of zigzag-shaped, superimposed scissor links with two or more pairs. The spiral is first turned into the cork. Then, by pulling on the handle located above, the scissors pushed together are pulled apart and the cork is removed relatively easily by lever action. Many also have a bottle opener (two small hooks in the picture on the right).
With the wing corkscrew , the ring (also called "bell" or "cage") is placed on the bottle neck. The spindle is screwed into the cork until the ring is tight, with the levers (wings) moving upwards on both sides. Then the wings are pressed down, which pulls the cork out of the bottle neck. The spring tongue corkscrew (also clip corkscrew) consists of two tongues (clips) made of spring steel of different lengths. These are placed on the right and left between the cork and bottle neck and moved in a rocking motion between the cork and neck and the cork is then unscrewed under tension. This shape is particularly suitable for problematic (brittle) corks.
With the lever-type corkscrew , the bottle is held in place by the pincer-like device. Then the lever is moved forward, with the spindle drilling into the cork. Now the lever is put back and the cork comes out of the bottle. A special form is the overpressure corkscrew , in which a hollow needle is pushed through the cork into the bottle. Through this, gas (e.g. air) is conveyed into the bottle, so that an overpressure is created which pushes the cork out of the bottle. The Kellnermesser is a three piece set that consists of a corkscrew, a bottle opener for Capsules and a small knife for removing the capsule consists. A famous brand is after the French community Laguiole named where it is produced.
All corkscrews serve the same purpose, namely to move the cork out of the bottle neck as easily, quickly and cleanly as possible without damage. An important criterion is that no cork residues can get into the bottle. There are not only aesthetic reasons for this, the cork could also help bacteria to be afflicted. Therefore, the spiral should not pierce the cork or come into contact with the wine, since metal has a chemical reaction or metallic Taste.
T-KZ right: From KMJ , CC BY-SA 3.0 , link
Bell concentration camp left: Torquato
Bell concentration camp on the right: By Véronique PAGNIER , public domain , link
Scissors concentration camp: VinoWo
Zig-Zag concentration camp: Torquato
Lever concentration camp: From BMK / Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Overpressure concentration camp: By itself - own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , link
Federzungen-KZ: By Constantin Vittoratos - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link