Device (also corkscrew or corkscrew) for removing the cork from the bottleneck. The cork has prevailed as the most common bottle closure in Europe from the mid-17th century. Initially, the corks were not wholly driven into the neck of the bottle, so removing them was a bit easier. The first primitive devices were small, pointed ice spikes, with which the cork was often removed piecemeal. The named after the form T-corkscrew is considered the oldest and most common variant and consists only of a spiral, which is attached to the cross handle. The corkscrew was first mentioned in 1681, the English term "Corkscrew" was coined around 1720. Until then, "Worm" (worm) or "Bottlescrew" was common. If the spiral has a so-called "soul" as in the picture on the right (so that a match fits into the inner turn), this is called a helix. The soul prevents the cork from crumbling.
In the second half of the eighteenth century there were first bell corkscrews in which the process of drawing was supported by the use of a threaded rod force-saving. The Englishman Samuel Hershaw filed his patent in 1795. A small disc above the spiral stopped the screwing movement of the corkscrew into the cork and set the cork in rotation. The thereby reduced friction of the cork on the neck allows the gentle draft of the cork. An improved version was developed in 1802 by his compatriot Edward Thomason. His patent continued the rotation of the screwing and initiated via a second, opposite shaft thread the drawing process. In the variant shown on the right, made of wood, the spindle is turned into the cork with the upper cross handle. When fully tightened, the cork is pulled out through the thread using the lower cross handle.
From the scissors-corkscrew (also joint, limb or accordion corkscrew) there are countless variants. The first of its kind was patented in England in 1884 by Marshall Arthur Wier. Upgraded models of nickel-plated steel or brass were first developed in 1903 by compatriot Henry David Armstrong and finally a 1928 patented model by Frenchman Marie Jules Léon Joseph Bart under the brand name Zig-Zag corkscrew . It consists of zig-zag-shaped, superimposed scissor links with two or more pairs. The spiral is first turned into the cork. Then the scissors pushed together are pulled apart by pulling on the handle located at the top and the cork is removed relatively easily by leverage. Many also have a bottle opener (two small hooks in the picture on the right).
In the winged corkscrew , the ring (also called "bell" or "cage") is placed on the bottleneck. The spindle is screwed into the cork until the ring is stuck, with the levers (wings) moving up on both sides. Thereafter, the wings are pushed down, whereby the cork is pulled out of the bottle neck. The spring tongue corkscrew (also clasp corkscrew) consists of two different lengths tongues (clasps) made of spring steel. These are placed on the right and left between the cork and the neck of the bottle and moved in a rocking motion between the cork and neck, and then the cork is twisted out under tension. This form is particularly suitable for problematic (brittle) corks.
With the lever corkscrew , the bottle is fixed by means of the pliers-like device. Then the lever is moved forward, with the spindle drilled in the cork. Now the lever is put back and the cork comes out of the bottle. A special form is the overpressure corkscrew , in which a hollow needle is pushed through the cork into the bottle. This will move gas (eg air) into the bottle creating an overpressure that forces the cork out of the bottle. The Kellnermesser is a three piece set that consists of a corkscrew, a bottle opener for Capsules and a small knife for removing the capsule consists. A famous brand is after the French community Laguiole named where it is produced.
All corkscrews serve the same purpose, namely to carry the cork out of the bottle neck as easily, quickly and cleanly as possible without damage. An important criterion is that no cork residues should enter the bottle. This has not only aesthetic reasons, but the cork could indeed with bacteria be afflicted. Therefore, the spiral should not pierce the cork or come into contact with the wine, since metal is a chemical reaction or metallic Can cause taste.
T-KZ right: From KMJ , CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Bell Concentration Camp left: Torquato
Bell Concentration Camp on the right: By Véronique PAGNIER , public domain , link
Zig Zag Concentration Camp : Torquato
Hebel-KZ: From BMK / Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Overpressure concentration camp: By itself - own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link
Spring Tongue Concentration Camp: By Constantin Vittoratos - Own Work, CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link