The French scholar Georges Couderc (1850-1928) came from a noble family and studied geology, mineralogy and palaeontology at the École des Mines in Paris, as well as medicine in Montpellier (sources often incorrectly mention the spelling "Coudrec"). From the mid-1870s onwards, he worked on the Champfleuri family estate in the Département of Ardèche (south-eastern France) on plant protection against insects. At that time the phylloxera catastrophe was at its height in France and the insect was already known to be the cause.
Georges Couderc specialized in the breeding of phylloxera-resistant rootstocks and created several hundred hybrids. He mainly used the American species Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris, as well as Vitis berlandieri, Vitis labrusca and Vitis lincecumii, which he partly crossed with European Vitis vinifera varieties such as Bourrisquou. His most successful rootstock vines are 1613 C, 161-49 C, 1616 C and 3309 C, some of which are still used today. The wine grapes he created are Couderc 13, Couderc Noir, Muscat du Moulin, Oiseau Rouge (Couderc 4401), Panaché Blanc and Pineau Couderc